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'NTELLECTUAL EDUCATION, 

AND 

HINTS ON DOMESTIC ECONOMY, 

ADDRESSED TO 

MOTHERS: 

WITH AN 

APPENDIX. 

CONTAIMXG 

An Essay on the Instruction of the Poo: 

Two volumes in oa-. 



BY MRS.ORANT, 

■ --•■•- ~ 



^ 



BALTIMORE: 
PUBLISHED BY EDWARD J. COALE, 



B. fides, printer. 

1813. 



20452 



. 



CONTENTS, 



Introductory remarks - - 13 

Directions for managing infants - 27 

Cloathing - - - 28 

Exercise 29 

Sleep - - - - 31 

Cleanliness 32 

Food - - - - -33 

Choice of a nurse 38 

Weaning - - - 40 

Remedies for slight ailments - ib 
Presence of mind and resources in casualties 49 

Prevention of diseases - - -55 

Precautions against infection - 57 

First impressions, temper, and obedience 59 

Ingenuousness, truth, and rectitude 84 

Religious instruction - - 92 

Maternal tuition - - - 100 

Rewards, &c. - - - - 120 

Servants, pride, humility, and humanity 123 
Loquacity, taciturnity, confidence and bash- 

fulness - - - 131 

Instruction of the deaf and dumb - 1 3G 

Courage, fortitude and cheerfulness - 139 

Toys and recreations - - 146 

Good manners and company - 149 



CONTENTS. 

page 

111 consequences of austerity and rigour 153 

Penalties, &c. ... 162 

Bad habits - - - 169 

Studies, employments, and accomplishments 172 

Precautions against vices and follies • 184 

Governors atid governesses - 210 

Young persons intended for business - 215 

Seminaries of education • - 219 

Books and literature - - 231 

Domestic economy - - 235 

Simple story ... - 248 

On Vaccine Inoculation - • 263 

Hints on the education of the poor - 268 



PREFACE. 



THE writer of the following sketches, 
aware that the defects of her performance call 
for a prefatory apology, earnestly hopes, by a sim- 
ple statement of facts, to obtain the indulgence o' 
her candid reader. Five and thirty years have 
now elapsed since her ideas on the subject of this 
work were first committed to paper. These ma- 
terials were reduced to a regular series, and sent 
to the editor of a periodical work, about twenty 
years ago; but, although spoken of in terms of 
high commendation, they were found too copious 
for the limits of that publication. They have, since 
that time, received considerable additions, and 
have at last been prepared for the press, under 
the most severe dispensations of domestic afflic- 
tion; nor could any motive, less powerful than a 
lively sense of duty, have supported a dejected 
spirit and enfeebled frame under the labour of 
completing the undertaking. But in the near view 
of dissolution, the author of these precepts felt it 
indispensable to her peace of mind to bequeath 
this legacy of experience to the world, as it might 
by the blessing of Providence, become instrumen- 
tal in rousing the public attention to truths hither- 
to buried in fatal obscuritv. 



11 PREFACE. 

The situation of the author having afforded her 
frequent opportunities of observing the misman- 
agement and perversion of infancy, and also of 
ascertaining the safest and most infallible mea- 
sures for preventing or correcting these evils, 
her conduct would be highly culpable if she did 
not divest herself of every sinister view, and 
combat popular prejudices with a zeal propor- 
tioned to the magnitude of her object and 
she has overcome every feeling of pride and too 
sensitive delicacy, whenever occasion has been 
presented of procuring extensive diffusion to re- 
monstrances on errors by which thousands have 
been deprived of sound constitutions, and the still 
more precious blessings of unvitiated minds. 
Care and gentle treatment are essential to health 
of body and intellectual vigour. Obedience to rea- 
sonable commands accustoms a child to habits of 
self-controul, but a slavish subjection to caprice or 
needless restraint destroys the clear discrimination 
of moral truth, perplexes the ideas of right and 
wrong, and introduces all the odious passions 
which lead to cunning, suspicion, and malevo- 
lence. 

It will be found in general, that the most ingen- 
ious, amiable, and upright characters, have in 
their childhood been preserved from all debasing 
and irritating emotions, and taught to respect the 
feelings of those around them. Ease of body, and 
tranquillity of mind, with a considerable degree 



PREFACE. Ill 

of freedom and indulgence, are favourable to 
every attainment of which the wisest and tender- 
est parents can wish their children possessed; 
while, on the contrary, every species of tyranny in 
infancy, childhood, or youth, not only embitters 
present existence, but strikes at the root of the 
most valuable social virtues. 

The oppression exercised by one child over 
another, either at home or at school, renders in- 
justice and gross misrepresentation habitual, so 
that moral rectitude and conciliating manners are 
scarcely to be expected in maturer age. As the 
greatest part of mankind pass a considerable por- 
tion of their lives amid scenes of domestic re- 
tirement, the author of these volumes humbly 
trusts she is justifiable in attempting, 

"To raise the virtues, animate the bliss, 
«* And sweeten all the joys of private life,*' 

Inverness, (ScoUj May, 1812. 



INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS, 

Jl A RENTS who have been very solicit 
ous to manage their infants according to the 
deductions of unprejudiced judgment, will 
have found occasion to forbid proceedings 
which the nurses were reluctant to forbear, 
and to enforce the observance of rules they 
were unwilling to adopt. They must also 
have discerned emanations of reason, me- 
mory, association of ideas, and a susceptibi- 
lity of habits in an infant not six months 
old, which would excite the astonishment 
of those who have not reflected on the sub- 
ject. The maternal friend who ministers to 
his wants, is long before this period fondly 
recognised; he prefers his dry nurse to the 
rest of the family, yet knows them all; and 
when a favourite is named, he suddenly 
turns his eyes towards the door, as if aware 
he may look for her appearance. If the ar- 
ticles that supply his wants or pleasures are 
spoken of, he indicates a reference to their 
use; speak of his hat, and his arms are ex- 
tended to go out of doors: of his bed, and 
l 



his little head is laid upon your bosom. He 
learns to obey, and copies whatever is often 
represented: and it is well, if. in the first 
use of imitative powers, his disposition es- 
capes injury. His maid thinks it amusing 
to teach him to scold, to menace and to give 
blows; to fawn, to caress, and to deceive; 
vet with equal ease she might impart more 
useful lessons, and few would fail in this 
service, if duly taught to perform it. 
Though the child can articulate few words, 
he understands many; and his application of 
verbal acquisitions sufficiently demonstrates 
a capacity for mental illumination. Pro- 
viding him with steady lights, to direct his 
active perceptions, may insure the happiness 
of his future life, and they who have had an 
opportunity of comparing a child, whose 
mind has been regulated and whose best 
feelings have been excited in early infancy, 
with one who had been habituated to the 
example of base and unruly passions, can 
alone know the difference arising from these 
circumstances. Every analogy in nature 
paints to early culture and restraint. If 
weeds are suffered to spring up, we look for 
no luxuriant growth of useful produce from 
the soil. The pliant seedling assumes what- 
ever form the hand of tin gardener shall 
direct; but in vain will he endeavour to 
straighten or to bend the tree, consolidated 



15 
by succeeding years. In the lower creation, 
" informed with life," the same early facility 

is remarkable The wild beast of the desert 
may be tamed, and habits foreign to bis na- 
ture superinduced. The tinifd nestling grows 

familiar with man; sometimes mimicks hi^ 
language, and adds new modulation to his 
native song, but the old bird languishes and 
dies. The groom and huntsman carefully 
guard against all bad customs in animals 
they undertake to train; and even the untu- 
tored Arab watches over the first move- 
ments of a camel, or a colt, he is preparing 
for service. If very early tuition is necessary 
to animals whose sensorium is bounded by 
invariable instincts, how much more to a 
rational agent, whose nature modelled In- 
habits, is endowed with capacities that pro- 
duce increasing good, or of accumulating 
mischiefs to himself and others; and whose 
highest virtue and happiness consists in the 
government of his ardent, complicated, and 
mutabie passions. 

Parental assiduity should direct not only 
the often mistaken means for preserving 
health, but the measures favourable to mo- 
ral impressions; yet how shall the inexperi- 
enced mother proceed in conducting con- 
cerns to which she has been a stranger till 
called upon for their regulation? and dread- 
ful are the evils which are to be imputed to 



16 

her incapacity. The bills of mortality 
throughout the British empire evince, by 
the most authentic documents, that of the in 
lants born into the world, one-third are 
doomed to perish within the first month, 
and scarcely one half attain the age of pu- 
berty: whilst every newspaper gives instan- 
ces of crimes and indiscretions that add pun- 
gency to natural calamities in all conditions. 
Those who have most sedulously studied 
the human frame are convinced, that such 
a number of deaths and constitutional dis- 
eases, in the first stages of life, are chiefly 
occasioned by mismanagement; and the hu- 
manity of several eminent physicians has 
furnished volumes to recommend a more ra- 
tional mode of treatment; but prejudice 
against medical systems deters many mo- 
thers from consulting these books, though 
they would readily listen to the counsels of 
an aged matron These considerations have 
induced us io offer the result of nearly forty 
years' experience; and perhaps our plain sug- 
gestions may relieve the perplexities of a 
youthful parent removed from all to whom 
she could apply for information. The pe- 
netrating good sense of the mother having 
detected some dangerous nostrums of the 
nurse, she suspects the whole of her conduct, 
but destitute of theoretic or practical know 
ledge, she must submit to her guidance, 



17 

When a physician is called she is in dread' 
lest his prescriptions may be counteracted; 
and yet conscious of ignorance, she dares 
not assume the management of her child. 
Emergencies may also occur when profes- 
sional attendance cannot be immediately 
procured, though absolutely necessary, and 
the wily nurse, or shrewd gossip, must be 
intrusted. 

Our simple and safe remedies may op- 
portunely enable the anxious mother to re- 
lieve the sufferer without yielding to "the ha- 
zardous experiment of quackery; and even 
in a state of celibacy, a judicious female may 
snatch from an untimely grave the child of 
a sister or friend, or some poor dependant. 
Ladies of rank and fortune devote much 
time and money to charitable purposes; and 
would gladly bestow instruction, if well as- 
sured they might teach the most beneficial 
of all arts, the care of infancy, both in re- 
spect to health and morals. Nor would the 
deed of mercy be confined to the immediate 
objects. A young woman who has seen 
her little brothers and sisters tenderly che- 
rished, and patiently taught to controul 
their passions, will follow her mother's me- 
thod in the nursery of the affluent, in tend- 
ing and restraining a being at that age when 
the necessities of all ranks are nearly similar. 
Thus, the best security for the offspring off 
b2 



18 

the wealthy will be formed in qualifying 
the poor to do justice to their own. But 
however well informed and meritorious a 
nurse may be, she ought not to be left whol- 
ly to her own discretion. All that can con- 
stitute private happiness and public prosper- 
ity, is included in the lives and virtues of a 
rising generation; and in the present enlight- 
ened times, when experimental knowledge, 
and the homage justly paid to common sense 
have exploded so many absurdities, it ap- 
peals unaccountable that the most moment- 
ous trust is for some time, at least, confided 
to persons who are never esteemed compe- 
tent for any other charge, in which liberal 
sentiments and discrimination may be essen- 
tial. AYe would not require ladies to per- 
form menial services; but we would entreat 
and exhort them to minute inspection of 
their infants. If once induced to give uni- 
form attention for a short time, they will be 
convinced it is indispensable. Many nurses, 
no doubt, are faithful, tender, and assiduous; 
but all mere mortals are liable to errors and 
negligencies, and a check upon these may 
buve children from all the dreadful miseries 
of a distempered body and corrupted heart. 
In general we shall find, that healthful and 
amiable young persons owe much to paren- 
tal vigilance; or, in the higher ranks, to a res- 
pectably Governess, as the guardian of infant 



19 

years. In a state of mediocrity, domestics 
who have had some education cannot be af- 
forded; therefore, no engagement of business 
or pleasure can excuse a mother's dereliction 
of the cares of her nursery. A limited for- 
tune indeed demands the utmost attention 
to economy; but be it remembered, that, 
whilst busied by an arrangement where loss 
or gain cannot materially affect your com- 
forts, the health of your dearest pledge may 
be irreparably injured. Besides, one fit of 
sickness will cost more than you can save 
or gain in the time necessary to guard 
against pains or perils to your defenceless 
child; and it should ever be kept in remem- 
brance, that he is utterly unable to intimate 
unkindness or neglect but by the melancholy 
consequences. Superintendance during ab- 
lution, cloathing, feeding, or taking exercise, 
or going to rest, may deliver him from many 
sufferings; and if you have daughters, they 
should be carefully taught to observe your 
management and treatment on every occa- 
sion. By degrees they will be qualified to 
supply your place occasionally at least; and 
early initiation in the cares of life will coun* 
teract juvenile follies. If ever they become 
mothers, the knowledge and experience thus 
acquired will prove an incalculable advan- 
tage, uor will they find it any incumbrance* 
or inconsistent in the least degree with re- 



to 

lined and ornamental accomplishments: at 
all events, it is more desirable to possess a 
capacity for usefulness, though it snould ne- 
ver be called into action, than to be wofuU 
]y deficient in those matters which are in- 
dispensably necessary for securing the com- 
fort and safety of helpless innocence. Men 
are prepared tor high appointments, for pro- 
fessions, and even for the meanest mechanic 
arts, by certain gradations and progressive 
attainments. The care otinf&ncy is the in- 
herent office of woman; but as its duties are 
not known by intuition, they ought to be in- 
vestigated and ascertained with more preci- 
sion and solicitude than have hitherto been 
bestowed on a subject of the deepest interest. 
To remedy this defect, and to assist the 
inexperienced mother in obviating or remov- 
ing corporeal or mental disorder, is the ob- 
ject of the following Treatise. In it we have 
attempted to point out a mode which has 
su % ecded in rendering many young persons 
" sincerely and intentionally" wise, amiable, 
and virtuous; and we indulge the hope, that 
judgment will not be passed on these pages 
until the candid reader has investigated the 
truths they contain with unbiassed earnest- 
ness and diligence. A mother who has been 
not merely the nurse, but the continual 
attendant and guide of her family, who by 
day and by night has watched over the fra- 



21 
gile form, has anxiously contemplated the 
tender mind laid open to every new impres- 
sion, and the total inability of her darling 
offspring to nvoid evil, whether it come in 
the shape of personal danger or mental con- 
tamination; she who has been unremittingly 
occupied in ascertaining the most complete 
corrective for foibles, or the most efficacious 
remedy for ailments, must have sentiments 
and perceptions very different indeed from 
the parent whose attention has been divided 
and dissipated in the prosecution of other 
engagements or pursuits; who seldom sees 
her little ones but when prepared for the in- 
terview by artificial good humour and for- 
ced smiles, or hears of their transgressions 
and amiable qualities only through the me- 
dium of angry vehemence or interested flat- 
tery. Under such circumstances, how little 
must the parent know of the temper and ha- 
bits of her children, especially if curbed or 
impelled by imperious harshness. She may 
see them every hour, and pry into all their 
circumstances, but the fear of unwittingly 
incurring punishment has taught them to 
dissemble even harmless inclinations; and, 
in this way, disingenuous arts have become 
habitual before the passive innocents could 
clearly distinguish between candour and du- 
plicity. Servants, too, believing they do 
well to, keep peace in the house, very readily 



ry 



22 

go hand in hand with the children in dee eiv- 
ing; and in short, no one is so often duped 
and baffled as thfe mother who governs by 
terror When debasing severity has com- 
menced with the nurse, has been continued 
and enforced by the parents; and maintained 
through every stage of parental instruction, 
integrity of mind ran never be established, 
and voluntary goodness is unavoidably de* 
barred 

Having considered the ordinary effects of 
inattention, and of that unreasonable anxiety 
which excites too great an exercise of author- 
ity, we have next to consider the tendency 
of what is commonly termed indulgence. 

Though we cannot but condemn that 
boundless compliance which nurtures the 
most unruly passions, and annihilates in the 
mind every distinction between met it and 
demerit, we are far from prohibiting harm- 
less enjoyments, however di verbified. We 
detest the weak and cruel idea, that unless 
we behave morosely, a young creature may 
be spoiled. Every failing must be reproved, 
but should be reproved with gentleness, and, 
as far as may be, changed into the opposite 
virtue. We lay it down as an axiom, and 
shall often revert to it, that every thought, 
word, and deed, approximates lo customary 
evil, or to habitual good in the mind: and 
jinceso much depends on habits, we must in 



23 

no instance permit mistaken tenderness, or 
indolence, to sacrifice certain vast and per- 
manent future benefits for present ease or 
gratification. On this account we should at- 
tentively correct the first propensity of mind 
or movement of body, that could not be ap- 
proved when the disposition and manners are 
formed: and, for the same reason, we would 
deprecate every indulgence that may lead to 
customary faults, and every degree of rigour 
which might introduce servility and cunning. 
Though a child cannot be controlled by- 
reason until he has learnt to affix precise ideas 
to the words w r e employ, and to feel the 
force of arguments, his heart will be sooner 
alive to virtuous impressions, and his facul- 
ties more speedily unfolded by talking to 
him as a rational creature, than governing by 
arbitrary command; and they who are con- 
versant with a proper mode of managing 
children, acquire unbounded influence over 
them merely by adapting their language 
to the capacity of their little auditors. In- 
fancy, though apparently helpless, is capable 
of precious improvements, by training and 
inuring the mind to religious and moral sen- 
timents, which in that pliant season are soon 
acquired: whereas much labour and sorrow 
must be endured to unlearn evil, if once in- 
dulged; whilst the time unavoidably con 
sumed in that painful struggle might be 



24 

employed to advantage in furthering the 
progress of education. 

If nurses can procure temporary quiet, and 
constrain the behaviour of their charge, their 
ultimate object is obtained; but they ought 
to learn how essentially the future happiness 
of the child must be affected by the treat- 
ment he receives in infancy. We admit that 
many worthy persons have not enjoyed the 
blessing of judicious care in the first stage of 
life; but we will find that, in this case, severe 
conflicts have been undergone in effacing 
wrong impressions, and in forming a system 
of intellectual education for themselves. 
These instances, therefore, afford still strong- 
er inducements to the affectionate parent to 
associate in the most unequivocal manner, 
the ideas of rectitude and innocency with 
self enjoyment, and oferror and transgression 
with misery. The perceptions and opinions 
of an infant are almost entirely at our own 
disposal, and to preserve them from the 
mental anguish which ever precedes refor 
mation, what exertion can be deemed too 
severe? We cannot shield them from the 
arrows of affliction, but we can secure them 
from the envenomed stings of guilt and 
self reproach, by cultivating in ourselves that 
species of knowledge which may teach us to 
shun the baneful consequences of erroneous 
principles in forming the tender mind. To 



2S 

be instrumental in assuaging pain, or in ve- 
lieving inconveniences, or to augment the 
comforts of a helpless sentient being, is one 
of the sweetest pleasures that can touch the 
bosom of humanity; but how much more 
exquisite the delight in reflecting that our 
patient superintendance has prevented errors 
which would have endangered the virtue and 
felicity of his whole existence. Such per- 
formances pre-suppose qualifications that 
elevate maternal influence and capacity to 
the most dignified excellence that may be- 
long to a fallible agent. In the eye of reason 
and philosophy, the merit of guarding against 
one natural or moral evil, far outweighs the 
highest accomplishments that administer on- 
ly to the decoration or pleasures of life. 

The pious and upright fare better even in 
this world than they who give way to vio- 
lent or insidious passions, and if we are very 
desirous to save our children from mistakes 
inimical to secular interests, w r e must acquaint 
them with the precepts of moral wisdom, 
which infallibly lead to soundness and per- 
spicacity in judgment, and will conduct 
them in safety through intricacies by which 
the unprincipled are involved in ruin. - When 
every thought, word, and action is sanctified 
by upright intention, the quicksands of vice 
and folly will be anxiously shunned; and if 
the child has learnt to speak the truth in 



26 

simplicity, not only in stating facts, but in 
expressing feelings and opinions those false 
estimates, and unreasonable expectations, 
that occasion imprudent proceedings will 
seldom frustrate his plans in maturer age. If 
he has been taught to cherish a facility in 
receiving satisfaction, admitting always that 
an endeavour to please entitles his compan- 
ions to complacency, he will extract the 
balm of contentment and cheerfulness from 
circumstances that to a fastidious temper 
would produce only the corrosive of splenetic 
scorn. Can it be supposed that these numer- 
ous and diversified instructions, thus slightly 
adverted to, can be afforded by the inexpe- 
rienced mother without some aid from & 
digested and systematic scale of duties? 



SIMPLE REMEDIES FOR SLIGHT AIL- 
MENTS. 

WE enter on this part of our undertaking;, 
formally protesting we are unable to suggest 
any remedy that may safely supersede me- 
dical advice in severe or dubious cases. The 
diseases of infancy are extremely acute and 
rapid in their progress, and they are often 
attended with characteristics which can be 
distinguished only by an experienced prac- 
titioner. Assistance should therefore be ob- 
tained on the slightest appearance of danger, 
and we merely encroach on the physician's 
province to enable parents to adhere more 
consistently to his prescriptions, or to act 
in urgent circumstances where he cannot 
immediately attend. Some knowledge of 
the healing art is the surest defence against 
the impositions of quackery, and the health 
of an infant may be preserved or restored 
by the timely use of very simple means, nor 
can the mal-practices of nurses be de:ected 
by a parent who is quite ignorant of these 
particulars. 

The inexperienced mother is generally 
mightily pleased with celerity in the nurse's 
mode of clothing the infant; but these rapid 
movements actually endanger the child's 



28 

life, and the utmost gentleness and deliber- 
ation must be enjoined. Remaining on the 
nurse's knee is an uncomfortable posture. 
Her motions and conversation disturb him, 
and he is exposed to extremes of cold and 
heat, or to too much light. During the first 
week an infant should be always in bed, ex- 
cept when taken up to supply his wants, 
which must be punctually attended to the 
moment he awakes, and by this easy expe- 
dient, habits of cleanliness may be very ear- 
ly established. It is of the utmost conse- 
quence that mothers should satisfy them- 
selves, repeatedly every day, that the child's 
clothes are all clean and comfortable, and do 
not in any respect confine his tender frame. 
Pins are so apt to lacerate the skin, and 
occasion dangerous fits of crying, that their 
place should be supplied by strings. With- 
out great attention from the mother, runners 
are unsafe, as nurses are apt to draw them 
too close, and the ligatures, by compressing 
one part, occasions unnatural enlargement 
in another, and deformity must be the con- 
sequence. Let it be observed, that though 
a child requires warmth, his clothing must 
not be so heavy as to oppress or overheat 
him; and the same rule must direct the nurse 
when she puts him to bed; the room in 
which he remains should be large and a "r\ ? 
but moderately warm. All sudden transi- 



29 

tions are hazardous, and even in passing 
from one apartment to another, a chilling 
blast may give rise to alarming complaints. 
Exercise must be given by slow grada- 
tions. After the first week the child may 
be kept for a short time on the knee, and 
then carried about a little in the nurse's 
arms, almost imperceptibly increasing this 
gentle motion. Shaking and dancing him 
up and down on the knee, is apt to strain 
the back, sicken the stomach, and to irritate 
or to terrify a young infant. Exercise is ab- 
solutely necessary to his health, and it ought 
to be gradually augmented during the first 
month Afterwards he should very seldom 
sit on the nurse's knee — a posture very un- 
favourable to his well-being and growth, 
He must be alternately carried about in her 
arms, or laid upon a cushion, where bis 
limbs can have full play. In summer he 
must be placed directly opposite to the light, 
and, if the rays are powerful, a slight shade 
should intervene. In winter his feet should 
be turned to the fire. The nurse must inva- 
riably watch over him, speaking and sing- 
ing for his amusement, and taking him up 
before he is chilled or uneasy. If his en- 
trance to the world took place in a cold sea- 
son, he must not be carried out of doors till 
a succession of mild weather has softened 
the atmosphere. He should he wrapt up, 
c 2 



so 

and frequently taken all over the house, the 
windows of spare rooms being previously 
wi open, tie may then for a snort time 
encounter the external air at noon day, and 
his walk may be lengthened a little every 
day. In hot weather, the morning and after- 
noon are the best for these rambles; but 
evening damps are at all seasons pernicious. 
The practice of lading a child on the grass 
has caused many incurable distempers, and 
standing with him at open windows and 
doors ought to be strictly prohibited. 

When little ones can run about, their mo- 
ther will do well to observe they are not of- 
ten confined to their seats, that the nurses 
may be spared annoyance from boisterous 
mirth They ought to be allowed to run 
and play as much as they like. These varied 
motions are necessary to give the humours 
due impulsion for their course, and distribu- 
tion must be unequal unless the sinews are 
in all parts alternately stretched and con- 
tracted Unthinking people admire th* regu- 
lations of a nurse or governess who com- 
pels their charge to be very quiet in the 
house and when they walk out to go along 
like files of soldiers. In a public promenade 
this is decorous, but a more retired situation 

I tier for children, where they may frisk 
and frolic like the bounding fawn. 

Circumstances May deprive a mother of 
the sweet satisfaction which every well con- 



31 

stituted mind experiences in discharging the 
actual duties of a nurse, but no considera- 
tion should prevent her from giving the 
most minute attention to the management of 
her infant; and we warn her that it is during 
the night he will probably suffer most from 
indifference or unkindness. The nursery 
should therefore communicate with the mo- 
ther's bed-chamber; and besides seeing her 
littie one put to bed, she should visit him 
just before she retires to her room. If he is 
undressed early he will slumber alter that 
fatigue, and will often be restless during the 
night. He must be used to regular hours in 
every particular, and if allowed a short sleep 
in the forenoon, and after dinner, he may be 
kept awake during the evening, when ail the 
family are going to bed, is the proper time 
to commence preparations on his account, 
and universal stillness will promote his re- 
pose; he should be laid on the right side 
more frequently than on the left A narrow 
bed is at all times dangerous and uncomfort- 
able for a young infant. 

After the age of four, the time allotted 
for sleep should be gradually abridged, but 
the child must be roused in a kind and gen- 
tle manner. Roughness might injure his 
health and temper 

Every part of a child's dress, whether 
worn by day or by night, although used 



32' 

only once, should be consigned to the laun- 
dress; as without this strict attention to clean- 
liness, excoriation and eruptions, can hardly 
be avoided. When the child is teething, the 
bibs must be changed whenever they be- 
come in the least damp, to prevent the sali- 
va from fretting his delicate bosom. 

To bathe an infant both morning and 
evening, while the stomach is empty is indis- 
pensably requisite to promote his health and 
comfort. During the first month, the water 
should be nearly milk-warm, but if there is 
no eruption, cough, or feverish disorder, the 
temperature may he gradually reduced. Af- 
ter gently and carefully drying every part, 
the whole body and limbs should be rubbed 
with the warm hand, taking great care not 
to press too much on the stomach and bow- 
els; and on these parts the friction must be 
applied in a circular direction. If the cold 
bath occasions violent crying, the antipathy 
must not be combated with much perseve- 
rance, as it may proceed' from sensations 
we cannot discover till too late to prevent 
their pernicious effects The head of an in- 
fant is liable to irreparable injury by using a 
comb. A soft brush very lightly em; Joyed 
is more safe; and the hair should only be 
long enough to cover the skin 

In feeding infants there are some atten- 
tions very important; yet many nurses of 



S3 
much experience have not adverted to them* 
A child should be almost in an erect posture 
when taking food He should be fed with a 
small spoon, scarcely half filled, and allowed 
to swallow one little portion before ano- 
ther is presented to him. Let it be remem- 
bered that the utmost care and gentleness 
are necessary to guard against hurting his 
gums; which cannot endure the same degree 
of heat as those of a grown person. After 
sucking or feeding, he must remain in a 
quiescent state for at least a quarter of an 
hour. Nurses are anxious to get the child to 
take a very abundant supper, but cramming 
his stomach prevents sleep as certainly as 
inanition. Never urge a child to receive one 
spoonful he has rejected. Let him have as 
much as he wall take willingly; but to entice 
or press him to exceed the cravings of his 
appetite never fails to derange some opera- 
tion of nature. 

Physicians recommend the mother's first 
milk as the best medicine, and assuredly the 
unerring Creator has appointed this aliment 
as the most suitable to every young animal. 
Though the milk has not flowed, the child's 
efforts will seldom fail in drawing it to the 
lactescent vessels; and it is better, if the pa- 
tient be too weak to receive it, to delay giv- 
ing him any nourishment for an hour or 
two: but after that time has elapsed, if he 



34 

cannot have breast milk, its properties must 
be imitated as nearly as possible, by mixing 
some soft boiled water with the milk of an 
ass, a goat, or a cow. One- fourth part of 
water must be added to ass's milk, which is 
always to be preferred. One-third part to 
goat's milk, which is next in quality, and 
one-half part to the milk of a cow, that had 
previously carved about ten days, and has 
been fed on sweet grass or hay. Whatever 
milk may be used, it should be obtained 
newly drawn, and very little mixed at once. 
Two or three tea -spoonfuls, a little warmed, 
may be given every time the child awakes; 
and by attending to the former direction, to 
make the spoon scarcely half full, the nurse 
may easily avoid wetting his clothes, by 
which carelessness the chin and bosom are 
often excoriated. As soon as he can be al- 
lowed to suck, all other food should be dis- 
continued; and if there be an abundance of 
milk, it is the best and only aliment for the 
first two or three months. If no discharge of 
the meconium takes place before the child is 
four hours old, a piece of manna, the size of 
a hazle nut, should be dissolved in four tea 
spoonfuls of soft boiled water, and given by 
degrees a little warm, at short intervals, till 
a tree operation is promoted. 

If there is the least doubt of a full supply 
of milk, and a better nurse cannot be pro- 



35 

cured, the child should have milk and wa- 
ter, mixed as above, frequently offered to 
him. If he is inclined to take that, or any 
other nourishment presented to him, no en- 
treaty will be necessary, and it never ought 
to be used. When milk cannot be had, a 
tea-spoonful of the yolk of a fresh egg, mix- 
ed with four tea-spoonfuls of hot water, is a 
good substitute. Soup of veal is prepared as 
follows, and it may be given as a change of 
food: — 

To two English pints of boiling water, al- 
low six ounces of the leanest part of well 
fed veal, lamb, kid or chicken, sliced thin, 
and boil them together till the liquor is half 
consumed, strain it, and, when cold, take off 
the skum very carefully. Pour the soup 
from the sediment, and warm a little of it 
when wanted. When children are troubled 
with flatulency, a tea-spoonful of carraway 
seeds boiled in this soup, or in any other 
food that may be strained off, will be found 
serviceable. Boys are sometimes afflicted 
with gravelish pains, which are much reliev- 
ed by putting in a few sprigs of parsley with 
the meat intended for soup. 

A child's food should be adapted to the 
state of his bowels, and as general rules are 
not a sufficient direction for the inexperien- 
ced mother, we shall enumerate some sim- 
ple messes that may be procured in all situa- 
tions. 



36 

When aliment of an opening nature is 
wanted, the soup should be prepared from 
the heart and lighte of a young animal; all 
the fot must be carefully picked off, and the 
soup should be clarified as already directed. 
After clarifying, it may be boiled again with 
pot barley to a proper consistency for a 
child three or four months old. 

When milk seems to be of a quality too 
astringent, we have substituted a part, or 
the whole yolk of a new laid egg in some of 
the child's messes, according to his age and 
vigour. It may be used in the following 
manner: — 

Take one ounce of pearl barley, and half 
an ounce of raisins stoned, cleaned, and cut 
small. Boil the whole in water till very ten- 
der, but not thick. Take the vessel off the 
lire, and just as the decoction ceases to boil, 
mix with it the yolk of a new laid egg, well 
beaten. 

Penado may be mixed in the srfhie man- 
ner. 

Good apples or pears boiled in the skin, 
to preserve the juice and the pulp, mixed 
with a little sugar and the yolk of an egg. 
For drink, take whey and liquorice root 
water. 

One of the best restringents for weak 
bowels is arrow root, when it can be pro- 
cured fresh and genuine. It ought to be pre- 



37 

pared with soft water, and eaten With ass's 
milk. Oats shelled and dried, of a light 
brown colour, and boiled in water till the 
seeds are tender, and of a thick consistency,, 
and eaten with ass's milk, also counteract a 
weakness of the bowels. 

Rice with millet boiled in water, and mix- 
ed in the same manner is an agreeable 
change. 

Penado of the finest wheaten bread that 
has been four or five days old, and taken 
with ass's milk is equally proper. 

Cow's milk may be prepared so as to 
have some of the best properties of ass's 
milk; for that purpose, mix two ounces of 
finely powdered double refined sugar with 
an English pint of milk, new from the cow, 
and stir it over the fire till it, boils. When 
cold, take of all the cream, which is good 
for culinary purposes. The thin milk may 
be taken with arrow root, jelly of calf's feet, 
or hartshorn; or with rice, or any other food 
of an astringent nature. It may be mixed 
with toast and water for com non drink, or 
boiled again with diied flour to the thick ■• 
ness of gruel or hasty pudding. The flour 
may be dried in any common camp oven, 
which has been well scoured and repeatedly 
scalded with boiling water. When thorough- 
ly dried, let it be made so hot that the bot- 
tom can be touched by the hand without 

D 



38 

shrinking. Sift into it the finest flour, 
about a quarter or an inch deep; make the 
cover pretty hot, and keep up the same de- 
gree of moderate heat ten or .twelve minutes. 
If the flour has not crumbled into grey pow- 
der, continue drying it till it assumes that 
appearance and form. 

Another very powerful and safe astrin* 
gent may be prepared from singed sheep's 
feet. Cut the flesh of the leg in thin slices, 
but take no part of the soal, as it is inter- 
mixed with particles of fat. To the lean 
part of four feet, well singed and cleaned, 
add two English pints of water. When boil- 
ed half away, set it to cool, and skim and 
clarify it as already directed. A child four 
months old may have a tea-spoonful of this 
soup every quarter of an hour, giving him 
half a grain of magnesia every morning and 
evening till the disorder abates; and observe 
that the quantity of the absorbent powder, 
and of the soup, ought to be increased in 
proportion to the age and strength of the 
infants 



CHOICE OF A TUBSE, 

ALL hereditary disorders, and espe- 
cially those of a pulmonary nature, may be 
communicated to the nursling. If the nurse 



30 

has had several children, the flow of milk 
will be more equal, and her knowledge of 
duty more complete. Her own child is the 
best specimen of her qualifications, and if 
the last is not more than five or six weeks 
old, it is a great advantage. Good teeth, a 
florid complexion, cheerfulness, personal 
neatness, and blameless moral character, are 
essentials in a nurse. Good milk is of a blu- 
ish colour, and rather sweet. 

As a safeguard against variolous infection, 
vaccine inoculation is recommended before 
the child is six weeks old. It ought to be 
repeated within the fourth year, and in a 
few months thereafter inoculation for the 
small pox would remove all uncertainty. 

Weaning. — If a child is declining much, 
without any evident cause, he will proba- 
bly improve when weaned, and in such a 
case it should not be delayed: but when cir- 
cumstances allow it, this privation should be 
deferred till good weather and long days ad- 
mit of having the little mourner out of 
doors. The nurse should not go far from 
the house, as her charge must have drink 
every quarter of an hour. Gruel of barley, 
rice, shelled oats, or oatmeal, or new milk, 
whey, milk and water, or any simple beve- 
rage he formerly preferred, should be used 
for this purpose. He must also have regu- 
lar meals to which it is presumed he has 



been accustomed, as a preparative to wean* 
ing. Any time after the sixth month he 
may be deprived of the breast, unless teeth- 
ing, or any acute disorder foibids it. If kept 
out of doors and amused during the day, 
with the addition of as much exercise as he 
can bear, he will not be very troublesome at 
night. When he awakes, some nourishing 
drink should be given, but no food. The 
desire of food during the night time, is a 
habit unfavourable to cleanliness and rest, 
and an early breakfast and late supper will 
soon remove every wish for it: all soperifics. 
wine, or spirits, are improper. 



BEMEDIES FOR SLIGHT AILMENTS. 

GRIPES are generally occasioned by 
retention of the meconium, cold, or improper 
food. Rubbing the body in a circular direc- 
tion with the warm hand will relieve a slight 
attack; but if it is very violent, and attend- 
ed with signs of loathing, or thrush on the 
tongue, dissolve one grain of emetic tartar 
in two table spoonfuls of warm water, shake 
the phial, and give half a tea-spoonful every 
five minutes till it acts as a gentle vomit. 
Or if there are no signs of loathing or fever, 
mix eighteen grains of Turkey rhubarb with 



41 

eighteen grains of magnesia; divide it into 
twelve doses> and give one every evening 
and morning; these powders will generally 
cure a slight attack, without the necessity of 
giving an emetic. 

The Thrush After the second day, an 

infant's mouth should be often examined, 
as the curd like ulcers are soon cured if at- 
tended to on their first appearance. A grain 
of magnesia given in the morning and even- 
ing, will remove the complaint in its earliest 
stage. If in two days, however, this remedy 
does not produce amendment, infuse half a 
handful of red rose leaves in a tea cupful of 
boiling water, strain it off, and add a little 
fine honey Cut your nail close on the first 
finger of the right hand, cover your finger 
with a piece of fine linen rag, dip it in the 
gargle, an*l gently touch the mouth and 
tongue twice every day, continuing to give 
magnesia till all the white ulcers have dis- 
appeared. 

Jaundice. — This disease may be known 
from the Gum by the nails and eyes being 
tinged with yellow. Mix two grains of ca- 
lomel, with four grains of rhubarb, divide it 
into four doses, and give one every evening, 
keeping the infant from cold air. If the dis- 
colouration of the skin still continues* mix 
four grains of ipacaeuanah with twc* table 
spoonfuls of water, and give half a tea-sp<x>qr 
b2 



42 

1'ul every five minutes, till it operates as an 
emetic; »dminis&e this early in the evening, 
and ac bed time immerse the ehild up to the 
neck in warm water for five minutes. Wrap 
him up warrmy, ^nd lay him for sleep. 
Jaundice is one of the numerous diseases 
occasioned by giving bread, rich milk, wine 
spieeries, or any solid or strong food to in- 
fants before the second month has elapsed. 

Convulsions are so frequently the conse- 
quence of tight clothing, that the first ob- 
ject ought to be the inspection of the infant's 
dress. If the teeth be shut, take ten drops 
of the spirit of hartshorn, and mix them 
with half a table spoonful of water — moist- 
en a piece of linen rag with it, and apply it 
to the pit of the stomach. When it can be 
taken into the mouth, add three drops of 
hartshorn to a tea-spoonful of water — give 
one half — and when it is swallowed, give 
the other. When the fit is over, the wet 
cloth may be taken from the body. If it ap- 
pears that the stomach is overloaded, give a 
grain of emetic tartar, as already mentioned, 
i child be of a full habit, and the 
countenance flushed with indications of fe- 
ver, it is requisite to apply a leech to each 
foot, and as soon as they have done, the 
and legs must be immersed in warm 
water. If a laxative is required, three tea- 
onfuls of castor oil, with an equal quan- 



43 

tity of warm water, and half a tea spoonful 
of manna must be administered by degi ecs, . 
till it operates freely. If an astringent be 
necessary, half a grain of magnesia may be 
given every two hours till the violence of 
the bowel disorder is abated. 

Eruptions. — Children who are kept tho- 
roughly clean, and guarded from infections, 
are seldom troubled with this offensive and 
distressing complaint. They ought to be 
confided t > one cleanly domestic; and in si- 
tuations where tiiere is every reason to tear 
Qonttigion, no other person should be allow- 
ed to handle the child Outward applica- 
tions are dangerous Clean] ness, the warm 
batn, and keeping the body gently open \\ ith 
magnesia, ate the only remedies in ordinary 
cases: but where there are many pusuies, or 
boils, on the skin, washing with warm wa- 
ter will not suffice. Immersion foi half an 
hour will then be necessary; but a\ery 
young infant cannot undergo such treat- 
ment in continuation In about ten minutes, 
the water, which has been only milk-warm, 
will become too cold, and the child will 
grow impatient. He must then be taken 
out, wrapped in a soft linen cloth, and by 
giving him the never failing cordial, he will 
probably ^leep upon the breast. Have water 
ready to re: eat the immersion as soon as 
lie awakes, and when he tires, take him out 



44 

a? before. This being done every morning 
anc night, will take off the inflammation, 
appease the itching and effect a cure. The 
pai s that have lost the skin must be dress 
ed with a little "Turner's cerate, mixed with 
sallad oil, to prevent the clothes from stick- 
ing to tne sores. These are operations to 
which the mother must constantly attend. 

Eruptions on the body often terminates 
hi troublesome sores on the head, which 
must be washed twice in the day with equal 
parts of hot water and brandy. Let the 
sores be dressed with Turner's cerate, spread 
thin oii a linen rag The body, at the same 
time, must be kept open with magnesia. 

^ n the least appearance of glazing or 
redness, foment the irritated skin with warm 
water, to which a seventh part of brandy 
has been added, and when gently dried, 
sprinkle some finely powdered white lead 
on it. Wind in the stoma* h is generally re- 
moved by friction before the fire, but if it 
induces great pain, or violent hiccup, three 
drops of the spirit of hartshorn in a tea- 
spoonful of water, given in two different di- 
visions, will dispel the flatulency. 

Oba rve that in all the doses, -we men* on 
the least quantify for a young infant, but 
■tore may be added in proportion to age,o* 
strength of constitution. 



45 

Sore eyes are often the effect .of cold, or 
being ^xp}sed to wind, or to a strong light. 
To cure inflamed eyes or eye-lids, they 
mast be fomented with hot water and miik. 
Take two pieces of old linen, large enough 
when twice doubled, to cover both eyes. 
Dip it in the hot ly^uid, press the moisture 
well from it, and irfyour own cheek can 
bear the heat easily, lay it over the child's 
eye-lids Remove it when it begins to 
cool, and apply the other rag. Keep the 
milk and water hot, and continue the fo- 
mentation ten minutes, thrice in the day. 
Weakness of the eyes, without inflamma- 
tion may be remedied by cold ablution, 
with one part of brandy, or vinegar, added 
to six parts of Water, and applied with two 
pieces of linen as above, with this difference 
however, that the warm application must 
be changed when it begins to cool, and the 
rigid remedy must be shifted when the cold 
is diminished. 

Squinting is often the consequence of ob- 
lique lights, and whether in bed or in the 
nurse's arms, a child should be so placed 
that the luminous rays may come with 
equal influence on both eyes. This habit is 
frequently caught from the nurse, and it is a 
defeat which ought to be an insuperable ob- 
jection to her admission in the nursery. 



46 

Teething is seldom severe upon well-man- 
aged infants. Providence has granted to 
mothers the invaluable priviledge of prevent- 
ing or mitigating sufferings incident to their 
offspring; and on a leview of the numerous 
attentions that are > nuisite, it must be ap- 
parent that cares sc. /.nplicated, however 
easily afforded, dem \ € the interested and 
steady superintendence of a parent. The 
most sensible, affectionate, and anxious nurse 
through ignorance, defect of memory, or 
misapprehension, may commit mistakes ir- 
reparable by all the resources of medical 
ability. The Physician can only prescribe 
he has neither time nor opportunity to enforce 
measures against mismanagement Extreme 
distrust of their own judgment, and too 
great a reliance on the confident pretensions 
of a nurse, are fatal errors of inexperienced 
mothers, but their inspection may do good, 
and can do no harm. It will at least im- 
prove their own knowledge. If with the 
usual symptoms of teething there are fever- 
ish heats, starting, drowsiness, or spasms, 
four drops of sweet spirit of nitre, and two 
of hartshorn, must be given every two hours 
till the dose has been thrice repeated. The 
drops may be given in liquorice-root water, 
or in any other harmless liquid. The feet 
and legs must be bathed in warm water, and 
the gums gently rubbed with a little finr 



4?' 

honey; and if the face be much flushed, 
leeching the feet will be necessary. If the 
stomach seems to be disordered, a gentle 
emetic may be given; an excessive discharge 
however, from the bowels, must be counter- 
acted by giving half a grain of magnesia every 
hour, and if the body be in a costive state, 
castor oil and manna must be administered. 
We have already given directions for the 
manner in which these remedies are to be 
used. 

When children are indisposed, losing their 
teeth, and getting the new set, the same 
mode of treatment must be adopted 

Rickets seldom appear till after the seventh 
month. Enlargements of the head, the joints, 
and belly, are soon followed by loss of flesh, 
and unnatural gravity of aspect; gentle eme- 
tics, and keeping the body a little open by 
small doses of rhubarb, are the first means of 
cure. Friction applied all over tie body, 
three or four times daily, is also a remedy 
not to be neglected, and the spine should, at 
same time, be anointed with spirit of 
wine, strongly impregnated with camphor. 
If the child be too young to eat meat, it must 
be cut in slices, to be held in his hand, that 
he may constantly suck the juices. 

Chicken, pigeon, partridge, veal, lamb, 
kid, or rabbit, broiled on an iron plate, with- 
out butter, will afford nutriment of easy di- 
gestion. 



48 

He may also have hartshorn/ or calves' 
feet jelly, arrow root, rice, millet, sago, salop, 
light puddings, or a fresh egg. He may 
have two or three table-spooniuls of wine 
mixed with his diet in the course of each 
day, when free from fever. 

Croup — This violent and rapid disease 
begins with pains in the throat under the 
chin, attended with hoarseness and a croak- 
ing noise. The application of leeches on the 
part affected should be succeeded by an 
emetic, whenever the leeches quit their hold; 
and if these means do not afford considera- 
ble relief, a blister must be laid over the ori- 
fices as soon as they cease to bleed If the 
discharge from the blister fails in abating 
the symptoms, there is reason to conclude 
that the croup is spasmodic, and assafoetida, 
must be used. A piece, about the size of a 
nutmeg, dissolved in a tea-cupful of pepper- 
mint water may be given in the proportion 
of half a table spoonful every hour, if the 
stomach can retain it. If you have no solid 
assafoetida, six or eight drops of the tincture 
may be given at like intervals. In early in- 
fanc} 7 , a cough, wheezing, and difficult 
breathing, are often contracted by sudden 
transitions from heat to cold; emeties and 
laxatives, as prescribed for disorders of the 
stomdeh and bowels, will palliate the dis- 
ease, but in cases where fever is indicated. 



49 
a piaster of Burgundy pitch placed between 
the shoulders, or a leech applied to the chest, 
will be necessary. To relieve the itching 
caused by the plaster, it must be taken off 
twice in the week, the part bathed with 
warm water and milk, and dried gently. 
After wiping the plaster and heating it a lit- 
tle, let it be replaced. 

Worms. — Every complaint not well uiv 
derstood by pretenders to medical skill, is 
imputed to worms, and much injury has 
arisen by giving cathartics and bitters, in con- 
sequence of an erroneous impression. When 
there is reason to believe the disease really 
exists, give half a tea-spoonful of the flour 
of sulphur in the evening, and at night, three 
tea-spoonfuls of castor oil, twice in the week. 
This will answer the purpose of more pom- 
pous remedies. 



PRESENCE OF MIND, AND RESOURCES 
IN CASUALTIES. 

Presence of mind or self-possession, ought 
to be cultivated from early youth, by per- 
severing endeavours to teach our children 
to govern their feelings, and with compo- 
sure to make exertions in cases of sudden 
alarm. This is so important, that danger may 
be averted, or distress alleviated,by a mother's 

E 



50 

fortitude and prompt resources; but it is 
needless to expatiate on self-evident advan- 
tages. Whatever may be the nature of the 
casualty, the patient should be instantane- 
ously undressed, but with great caution and 
tenderness. He will, however, bear these 
movements better than after the part has be- 
gun to swell and inflame Even the extent 
of the injury, perhaps cannot be fully ascer- 
tained till all the clothing has been remo\ ed. 
Whilst this is going forward, the bed on 
which the sufferer is to remain should be 
made up with clean linens, and in the most 
convenient manner. A distinct messenger 
must also be dispatched for the doctor, if he 
lives near; but if at some distance, all the in- 
formation ought to be given accurately on 
paper, and in the mean time, some relief for 
the patient must be devised. 

When a fracture appears to have happened, 
our first care should be to replace the bones. 
If the skin has been lacerated, caddis, or old 
linen scraped, and dipped in salad oil, must 
be applied. Spread some white ointment on 
stiff linen, or stout white paper, which must 
be laid over the wound, and fixed with a 
broad but not tight bandage. To retard the 
^welling, cloths, wrung out of warm milk 
and water must be applied, changing them as 
they cool, until we can prepare fomentation? 
of chamomile flowers, or ground malt: which. 



51 
must be used between two folds of flannel 
These applications will allay the pain, and 
prevent a high degree of inflammation, till 
surgical assistance can be obtained. 

If the swelling, induced by dislocation, 
can be reduced without much difficulty, it is 
proper to endeavour to return the bone to its 
proper situation, but as an aukward opera- 
tor may augment the injury, he ought to de- 
sist, if he does not succeed in a short time; 
and in that unfortunate case, all that can be 
done is to use fomentations, as already di- 
rected for a fractured limb. These warm 
softening applications w T ill give ease, and re- 
tard the swelling. If the joint has been re- 
duced, we have only to place the limb in an 
easy posture, and to apply a cloth dipped in 
Groulard, or vinegar and water, but all at- 
tempts to bandage the parts might be inju- 
rious. 

A sprain only requires to lay the sufferer 
in bed as comfortable as circumstances may 
admit, and every quarter of an hour to rub 
the part with equal proportions of vinegar 
and water, applying also cloths wrung out 
of that mixture: friction helps to contract the 
the elongated sinews. 

Burning and scalding are accidents so 
common, and attended with such extreme 
suffering, that we are happy to take this op- 
portunity to diffuse the knowledge of a sim- 



52 

pie and ever ready means of relief. This is 
the only casualty in which it would be im- 
proper to bestow a moment of time to un- 
dress the patient. The clothes must be cooled 
by throwing upon them a copious stream of 
any simple cold liquid. Water is most 
effectual, but if milk or whey can be more 
immediately obtained in large quantities, we 
must drench with the cooling liquors every 
part that has been affected with the hot water. 
Vinegar, wine, spirits, or beer, may be used 
if there be no excoriation, but the least injury 
to the skin would make these pungent 
liquors dangerous. As soon as water can be 
procured, it must be employed profusely. If 
the part can be completely immersed, the 
effect will be more speedy, and the degree of 
cold may be continued by frequently adding 
water fresh from the spring. At the end of 
one hour we may try if the pain be quite 
removed, but on the least return of uneasi- 
ness, recourse must be had to the cold water. 
If the injured part cannot be placed Ln a ves- 
sel containing this cooling fluid, cloths 
wrung out of it must be used. A single fold 
of linen dipped in water must be first applied 
but not removed, as it is intended to exclude 
the air; a large cloth, however, must be laid 
over the single fold and changed as often as 
it becomes m the least degree warm. 

It consists with our knowledge, that two 
children, dreadfully burned by boiling water, 



53 

were cured by the application of the cold 
bath — in the one instance, by water, and in 
the other, by whey. These tacts are so im 
portant, that they cannot be too widely dif- 
fused, and the value of the discovery cannot 
be too strongly impressed on public attention. 
We, therefore, deem ourselves fortunate in 
being able to say, that in every case where 
the remedy has been applied, it has proved 
effectual, and is now generally resorted to by 
medical practitioners, and the more intelli- 
gent members of the community. 

Several remarkable proofs of the benefits 
attending the use of hot water and milk, as 
a fomentation, have occurred in the course of 
our own experience. We have known a 
suppuration in the breast, which threatened 
to fall upon the lungs, brought to discharge, 
by applying cloths wrung out of hot water 
and milk, keeping up an equal heat, and 
persevering for some hours 

In blows and in wounds which had en- 
flamed, and in large abscesses, we have found 
immersion in hot water and milk to procure 
a discharge and speedy cure; but we must 
ci ntinue this remedy for some hours, and 
use the liquid as warm as the patient can 
bear without uneasiness. As few can have 
a surgeon to dress their sores so often as re- 
quisite, it may be of some advantage to an 
inexperienced mother to know how she mav 
E 2 



54 

give them the necessary attention. In some 
parts, swch as the points of the fingers, the 
vskin is so thick as not to give way, and the 
offending matter, having no vent, augments 
the inflammation. Few have courage to at- 
tempt the use of the lancet, but a common 
fine darning needle will answer the purpose. 
Keeping as near the surface as possible, run 
the needle across the part in which the mat- 
ter fluctuates. Cut out the needle with a 
pair of sharp scissars, and again soak the sore 
for five minutes, dry it, and apply basilicon 
ointment, spread thin on a linen rag. The 
sore must be soaked in hot water and milk, 
morning and evening, and dressed in the 
same manner, carefully cutting off all loose 
skin, as it prevents healing if allowed to re- 
main. 

If there be any appearance of fungus, or 
proud flesh, (as it is called,) a light sprink- 
ling of allum which has been burnt, or rather 
boiled on an iron plate, or touching the 
tumid part with blue vitriol, may be neces- 
sary. If the sore still does not heal kindly, 
we must use camphorated spirit of wine; 
after washing and gently drying the orifice, 
a linen rag in three or four folds may be 
dipped in camphorated spirit of wine; and 
laid over the sore for ten minutes, then dress 
it as usual with basilicon ointment, Chil- 
blains might be generally checked by ap 
plying to the part, whenever it begins to be 



5o 

affected, common flour of mustard moisten- 
ed with strong spirits. If chilblains break 
and suppurate, they must be treated in 
every respect as we have directed for a com- 
mon sore, except that instead of basilicon,- 
white lead ointment must be used, and the 
camphorated spirits of wine, not only em 
ployed as a wash, but flannel soaked with 
them must be laid over the dressing. 

When a sore seems to be quite clean and 
disposed to heal, the discharge becomes 
thick, and Turner's cerate, or white lead 
ointment, is better than basilicon to cica- 
trize the part. 



PREVENTION OF DISEASES. 

A auiET apartment, moderate warmth, 
and diluting drinks, would often check the 
progress of fatal diseases. Tf resorted to in 
time, these remedies might remove danger- 
ous colds and fevers, and mothers should 
acquaint themselves with the state of a 
healthy pulse, that when the blood has an 
impulsion too violent, they may employ 
simple means to abate the stricture of the 
vessels. We by no means recommend con- 
fining a child to bed unless pain, loathing, 
or extreme lassitude disposes him to a re- 
cumbent posture. If he be compelled to 



56 

seek his pillow, his mind will be ruffled and 
he may catch more cold or exasperate tiie 
fever by restlessness. A very sagacious 
and successful practitioner has declared the 
whole healing art to consist in discerning, 
and co-operating with, the efforts of nature. 
He preferred confining his patients to their 
chambers, as in case the disease might prove 
lingering, prematurely betaking themselves 
to bed would certainly occasion a cruel ag- 
gravation of suffering. The parts on which 
the body must rest cannot be preserved 
from injury during long confinement, there- 
fore this considerate and humane physician 
delayed that measure by every palliative 
remedy 

A retired and warm apartment and the 
soothii g attendance of a kind parent, or 
friend, with permission to recline when he 
wishes for it, will often prevent the necessi- 
ty of going to bed, which, however should 
not be objected to, if it be the child's desire. 
His ow n sensations ought to be our rule, 
but whether he may sit up, recline occa- 
sionally, or undress and go to bed, he ought 
to be kept quiet, and allowed, or rather ad- 
vised to drink plentifully of any simple 
warm liquid, as whey, milk and water, ta- 
maiind, or apple tea, currant jelly dissolved 
in water, lemonade, or gruel of shelled oats, 
barlej rice in which liquorice root has 
been boiled. 



57 

When a patient must be confined to bed, 
the utmost attention shou ] d be bestowed to 
save the skin from irritation The linens 
must be always smoothed, and the crumbs 
of his food very carefully taken away. 
These means, and frequently changing his 
posture, with the help of scrupulous clean- 
liness, may retard a suffering, one of the 
most severe that is incident to the bed of 
sickness. 



PRECAUTIONS AGAINST INFECTION. 

ON the first symptom of fever, the pa- 
tient must be separated from the rest of the 
family, except his mother, and the necessary 
attendants, who ought also to keep them- 
selves at a distance from all the rest. Linens 
of every description must be changed daily, 
and the blankets once in three or four 
days. Every article must be instantaneous > 
ly soaked in cold water, out of doors. Aro- 
matic vinegar, sal volatile, camphor, or any 
strong scent that does not distress the suf- 
ferer must also be used. These precautions 
and the admission of fresh air, will probably 
prevent the disease from spreading. The 
rich, for their own sake, and in mercy to 
the poor, should teach them, and furnish the 
means for such antidotes, and precautions, 



58 

They ought likewise to be strongly dissuad- 
ed from troublesome officiousness to their 
sick neighbours, by which the patient is dis- 
turbed, and the distemper communicated 
around. Sunday being most convenient, 
they often visit the diseased or afflicted be- 
fore sermon, go to church with the miasm 
in their clothes, and probably many are 
affected Children being the most liable to 
catch disorders, ought not to be permitted to 
go to places of worship where epidemics 
prevail. In Berlin, and in some other parts 
of Germany, houses are erected for the re- 
ception of dead bodies, as a measure calcu- 
lated to prevent infection, by removing from 
the crowded dwellings of the poor, the risk 
of suffering from pestiferous exhalations. 
A certain sum is paid per night until the bo- 
dy be committed to the earth; but to induce 
the indigent to avail themselves of this ad- 
vantage, it must be afforded gratis, and its 
benefits to all who may be within reach of 
tl)e contagion are obvious. Another impor- 
tant object is also secured by effectual 
guarding against the most dreadful of deaths, 
premature inhumation. At the foreign in- 
stitutions a watchman is continually in wait 
ing to warn the medical attendants, who 
are at all times prepared to use every meant 
to restore vitality. 

We are very desirous to circulate some 
advice to the inferior classes of people on 



r> 



59 

on the subject of infantine management; 
but until the errors that may have been here 
committed are suggested by impartial criti- 
cism, we have deemed it prudent to delay 
the undertaking. Instruction should be very 
explicit and correct, when offered to those 
who perhaps may not have access to be in- 
formed of emendations. The most impor- 
tant interests of all ranks may be injured or 
promoted by a work of that nature, as the 
nursery maid generally adopts the usages pe- 
culiar to her native Cottage; and unless 
the mother is incessantly present by day 
and night, it will be impossible to guard 
against the consequences of these early pre 
judices. 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS, TEMPER, AND 
OBEDIENCE. 

The impressions received when all ob- 
jects are new, and striking from the effect 
of novelty, seem so interwoven with the 
feeling and powers of the mind, as seldom 
to be eradicated by the admonitory or coer 
cive endeavours of the most anxious parent. 
Nor are the active volitions of mature under 
standing always successful in correcting the 
distorted or defective images which ha\ e 
been stamped on the minds of infants. It 



should, therefore, be our first care to convey 
them in just form, colouring, and propor- 
tion. The general rules for this purpose are 
neither troublesome or difficult; whilst their 
due application may prevent much severe 
and ineffectual labour. We would be as- 
tonished to find these interesting truths so 
frequently overlooked, did we not know, 
that the first stage of life is commonly man- 
aged by the nurse, who thinks only of keep- 
ing her charge quiet, without regarding 
the consequences. We must warn, how- 
ever, the inexperienced mother, that very 
seriou tare the effects depending on first im- 
pressions; but the means employed to regu- 
late them, and to insure the child's happiness 
in after life, will soon appear to the nurse 
more practicable and easy than her own 
method. 

Custom is justly said to be a second na- 
ture — and if parents would use its influence 
from the first moment that reason daw r ns, 
they would rarely be disappointed in ma- 
king their offspring all they could reasona- 
bly desire. We are so convinced of the 
force with which a nurse's exterior appear- 
ance affects the child, that no person of com- 
mon sense will employ a woman who 
squints, winks, snuffs up the air, keeps her 
mouth awry, or has any peculiarity in atti- 
tude or deportment. Let us apply this cs- 



01 

tablished rule to mental habits, and never 
expose an infant to the sympathetic effect of 
rage or peevishness, nor to that habitual irri- 
tation and discontent which arises from the 
indolence of an attendant who omits to sup- 
ply wants, or to remove inconveniencies. 
The present evil is, in this case, the least, for 
the little one will outgrow helplessness, but 
a fretful temper m^y become rooted and in- 
curable. If a child be kept clean and com- 
fortable, and the functions of nature be re- 
gular, his clothes quite easy, and sufficient 
nourishment, amusement, and motion, be 
given to him by the nurse, he will seldom cry 
immoderately, except from real distress. But 
if she treats him with violence, or grumbles on 
account of the trouble she must undergo, he 
will imbibe her ill humour. She ought, there- 
fore, to be made sensible, that by cheerful 
and patient attention, much annoyance may 
be saved to herself. If her charge appears 
very uneasy, or screams as if in pain, she 
ought to inform his mother, and immediate- 
ly to loosen his dress, and examine every 
part, to ascertain whether he has received 
any external injury. Kind, soothing, and 
gentle motion must be employed to quiet 
him; but she should be taught invariably to 
abstain from bribing him to peace, by put- 
ting play things into his hands. If she in- 
dulges him in that habit, he will soon learn 
p 



62 

to cry from a wayward desire for novelties. 
We hope we shall not be conceived to mean 
that all the wishes of an infant are to be 
thwarted. We would not willingly vex a 
child at any age. Things improper or un- 
safe must be kept out of his view; and such 
gratifications as are suitable, if he asks them 
in good humour, should be granted imme- 
diately. But he must never experience our 
pity or compliance in consequence of vehe- 
ment or surly importunity. The moment chil- 
dren discover that tears and murmurs have 
no effect, they become manageable, and ac~ 
acquire a habitual command over themselves. 
As soon as achild can understand, and even* 
before he is capable of profiting by expostu- 
lation, we must fix his attention by talking 
to him, bidding him remember that he 
will never gain his desire by ill humour — 
but no angry emotion should be betrayed, 
as it would contradict our own precepts, and 
inflame his rage by bad example. We have 
often considered with inexpressible concern 
the severity of the pain inflicted on infants 
from mistaken zeal for their welfare. Let his 
mother, therefore, explain to the nurse that 
she will succeed better at that time, and may 
prevent many subsequent faults by mild treat- 
ment. By speaking in a serious tone she will 
engage his attention and touch his feelings; 
and as he is neither irritated nor terrified, if 



he be free from pain, he will listen in silence. 
Boundless indulgence on the one hand, and 
undue severity on the other, are both equal- 
ly injurious. Even in early infancy the least 
appearance of a propensity to evil must be 
checked; but if the feelings have not been 
blunted by harsh measure^ a gentle rebuke 
will be sufficient. 

No error can be more baneful, than man- 
aging infants by petty deceptions; or the 
common practice of scolding an elder brother 
or sister, or beating some object, animate, 01 
inanimate, for the child's faults. Such con- 
duct absolutely teaches him, when he be- 
comes older, to deviate from truth, and to 
blame others, when he alone is culpable. 
Another frequent and most reprehensible 
frolick to please a child is not less corrupt- 
ing: his nurse pretends to steal or run away 
with some nice thing for her darling, who 
very probably, as soon as he can, will take 
the same liberty. We ma}' easily convince a 
sensible woman that all this is improper, and 
that her charge should not see or hear any 
thing which it would be wrong to imitate. 

Let it be remembered, that it is our duty 
not only to preserve him from bad exam- 
pies and impressions, but also to keep for- 
bidden gratifications, and opportunities of 
transgressing, out of his way; for it is by 
excluding temptation that instruction can 



'64 

prove effectual, or that habits of rectitudje 
are to be introduced and confirmed in early 
age. If the child should seize an occasion 
to pilfer even a bit of sugar, he n ust be de- 
prived of it, with manifest signs of horror on 
out part; and all his rogueish arts to make a 
joke of the transgression must be repulsed 
with a solemn countenance. He should be 
made to understand that we are ashamed 
and afflicted to find he has taken any thing 
that was not his own; and that God, who 
see and knows all things, is displeased by 
such injustice. The little culprit should like- 
wise be taught to kneel down and implore 
pardon from the Father of mercies. 

The command of his temper, and the 
practice of integrity are the first steps in our 
system of 'Intellectual Education;" 
we have, therefore, illustrated more fully 
than would otherwise have been necessary, 
the means which have appeared to us as best 
calculated for introducing and confirming 
those virtues, and we shall afford similar ex- 
planations as often as may be consistent 
with the original plan of this work. 

We can affirm from undubitable and re- 
peated experience, that there is little trou- 
ble with infants who have never been misled 
by silly compliances, or bad example, never 
exasperated, nor severely overawed; but 



65 

-managed by gentle firmness, checking every 
mpropriety in its first appearance. "Con- 
sider well what you are doing, my dear; 
this is worse than childish. A fool, or a 
monkey does mischief, but good children 
can divert themselves without plaguing any 
t>ne, or spoiling the smallest article. Ask 
leave before you touch things, and you will 
seldom do amiss/ 7 The habit of asking per- 
mission, is equivalent to seeking advice in 
advanced years; and to this we impute the 
good qualities of some young persons, who, 
with all the naivete of childhood, and all the 
vivacity of hearts that never felt distress, 
amused themselves without incommoding 
older people. Continually under their mo- 
ther's eye, and folio wingher when going about 
her extensive concerns, the change from one 
place to another afforded exercise and diver- 
sion, and when at worksheallowed them full 
liberty toplay beside her, and totakechairs, or 
any furniture that would not be injured in 
their sports, but each was returned in safety 
to its proper place. To admonish and re- 
prove was sometimes necessary, but neither 
invective nor chastisement wa& used — and 
at the age of seven or eight, there waS sel- 
dom occasion for a rebuke. How comfort- 
able, how beneficial is this method of ma- 
nagement, when compared with that of foe* 



66 

tering the passions in the first months of life* 
and then, by imperious prohibitions and 
commands, to make the poor infant cross, 
sly, and abject. No sooner do locomotive 
forms enable a child to reach the objects of 
his desire, than he is scolded and punished 
for putting them in disorder; but his attend- 
ant gives no intelligible rule to keep him 
from these offences; and as harmless em- 
ployment for his activity has not been fur- 
nished, he torments her and the elder 
children; and mamma, prepossessed by their 
complaints, joins in the general tyranny. 
Some one is always scolding or chastising 
him, and his mind is soured or inflamed by 
feeling himself the object of general disappro- 
bation. The voice of kindness never taught 
him to know right from wrong — his instruc- 
tioh has always been accompanied with 
painful associations — whatever, therefore, 
bears the semblance of an advice or a les- 
son is hateful. His plan of education is com- 
pulsory, and he is made wretched, perhaps 
worthless, by the means which are intended 
for his improvement. 

A short maxim to counteract improper 
propensities, and to produce resolute self- 
government, would prevent the miseries he 
endures from unprofitable chiding and cor- 
rection, and by teaching him to revert to a 
simple principle which be is able to com- 



prehend, the subsequent woes tliat may be 
avoided are beyond the reach of ordinary 
calculation. Education can gaurd against, 
or diminish almost all the evils of life; and 
as n<5 obstacle to virtue can be insuperable, 
but by the choice of the individual, it must 
be our endeavour to give distinct percep- 
tions for influencing the young mind to seek 
within itself for the motives of action. 

Some children have an intuitive sense of 
propriety, but, unassisted by moral princi- 
ples, this soundness of understanding, though 
it may preserve them from flagrant offen- 
ces, will never rise above mere selfish wis- 
dom. It is by exalting and refining the mo- 
tives of action that a pious parent not only 
enhances 'the deserts, but promotes the 
truest happiness of her family; and in the dis- 
charge of her duty she must prepare herself 
to meet with almost daily occasion for the 
exercise of all her powers; for there is con- 
stantly some weakness to fortify, some ex- 
treme to moderate,, and some defect to sup- 
ply. Regardless of this momentous trust, 
what right has she to look for acceptance 
with that Almighty Being who is all-suffi- 
cient to keep neglected children in innocen- 
cy, but how shall a mother account for the 
breach of those sacred engagements which 
she came under by her marriage vow? 
Though her sons and daughters should 



68 

prove eminently meritorious, yet conscious 
of negligence, she can never experience that 
exquisite delight which more than repays 
successful instruction. If her children be \m- 
dutiful and profligate, which is likely to be 
the case, where indolent ease, sordid cares,, 
or fleeting pleasures have deprived infancy 
of due superintendance, what misery can 
equal the compunctions of a mother, who 
is self-condemned as accessory to the ruin of 
her offspring. Repentance may propitiate 
extreme misery, but agonising regrets must 
ever corrode the mind of that parent who 
unhappily has either her own supineness or 
rigour to blame for the abberrations of her 
children; or who feels a secret reproach in 
beholding excellence which she has not con- 
tributed to produce Every well directed 
endeavour to produce moral improvement, 
must be attended with advantages not less 
durable than valuable; and the evils from 
which both the parents and children may be 
exempted, are beyond calculation. 

A young woman who has hardly ever 
estimated her own powers, will shrink with 
apprehension from a charge of jaich magni- 
tude; but impelled by the most solemn ties 
— and urged by the most cogent claims in 
mature — she will, if earnestly desirous to ful-r 
fil these oblifipitions, find herself enabled to 
iropress the infant heart with virtues she had 



69 

never before particularly cultivated, and 
speedily rise to attainments with which she 
had formerly little acquaintance. Let her, 
therefore, constantly keep in mind, that the 
same course of duty must fit her child for 
comfort and respectability on earth, and for 
the happiness of endless ages; and that to 
remove every obstacle to the growth and 
perfection of virtue, with the least interrup- 
tion to juvenile enjoyments, is the noblest 
exercise of female tenderness. All the re- 
sources of philosophy, and all the investiga- 
tions of science, cannot afford so much true 
and comprehensive wisdom as this union of 
temporal and eternal interests. The vivid 
sensibility of a fond mother, whilst it awa* 
kens many fears for failures on her part, will 
also animate her to encounter its difficulties* 
She will scrutinize her own disposition and 
opinions, and correct herself with candour 
and firmness, that she may be prepared to 
transfuse her best qualities into the suscepti- 
ble hearts of her children. To establish her 
precepts, she will practise the most strict self- 
government, and always keep in view T that 
every deviation from reason and justice has 
a tendency to injure the temper, the integrity 
and intellect of the object of her solicitude. 
If he shall see her in a passion, her violence 
will be imitated; if be shall be terrified he 
will speedily attempt to deceive. On this 



70 

account the conduct of his nurse, his gover- 
ness, or preceptors, ought to be equally cir- 
cumspect. The hanit of instantly seizing 
every opportunity that presents itselt, will 
lead a mother, without any fatiguing effort, 
to communicate truths of the highest impor- 
tance, whilst her children playfully surround 
her in the bed-room or dressing-room; or 
when admitted as companions in her parlour 
and drawing-room, or at table, or in her 
walks. A child will at times give trouble to 
whosoever takes a deep interest in his behalf 
during the most helpless and intractable 
stage of his existence. It is therefore the 
more necessary for his mother to lend her 
patient and judicious aid in bringing him to 
order, without injuring the finest shades in 
his disposition; and when little ones have 
lost their infantine simplicity, and have not 
yet attained a distinct sense of right and 
wrong, or habits of decorum, it will often try 
the parent's self-command, to suppress emo- 
tions that ought not, on any account, to be 
betrayed, as they w ill excite corresponding 
feelings in the ductile mind. Our radical 
mistake seems to be, that we judge, by our- 
selves, of a young creature as yet totally un- 
instrueted. But unless we endeavour to en- 
ter into his contracted and defective no- 
tions his mistakes and misapprehensions, 
ran neither restrain his temper, nor im 



71 

press his mind with principles that would 
save ourselves the painful labour of strug- 
gling with evil habits. 

' There is no mother but may find suffi- 
cient leisure to perform a duty so indispen- 
sably necessary — to secure that purity of 
heart which gives rise to every virtue, and 
without which no virtue can exist. 

Even she, whose household affairs de- 
mand a large proportion of her time, may 
have her child led, or carried from place to 
place, as her different concerns may require 
her presence; and a few minutes devoted to 
reproof or admonition, will hardly interrupt 
any occupation in which she can be enga- 
ged. It is by short and sententious hints 
that impressions are most effectually made; 
and many uncouth gestures, vulgar phrases, 
and faults more fatally injurious, may be 
guarded against by these attentions. Let a 
mother set her heart on bestowing them, and 
she will find no difficulty in accomplishing 
the object of her views. In a smaller or great- 
er degree, all parents endeavour to correct 
the failings of their children when they cease 
to be playthings: and we earnestly entreat, 
that it may be calculated how much easier 
it is to prevent than to cure bad customs, and 
how much rftore pleasant to give and to re- 
ceive instructions, than to apply correction. 
By incessantly attending to the nurse'-s 



72 

management, and commencing our earcs" 
so as literally "to teach the young idea how 
to shoot," we shall escape from many dis- 
quietudes occasioned by the disobedience 
and mischievous pranks of boys and girls, 
who ought to be models of goodness. Mis- 
managed children, as they advance in age, 
will corrupt their juniors; and though prac- 
tice has improved a mother's method, yet if 
the first child is headstrong, or deceitful, he 
will counteract her best endeavours; and we 
needhardlysuggesttoher,thata few months 
or years, devoted to infantine management, 
is less laborious than a continual warfare 
with turbulent or base passions. We have 
seen all the satisfaction derived from talents* 
acquirements, and accomplishments, utterly 
overwhelmed by solicitude and suspicions 
regarding a young person's behaviour when 
out of sight. On the other hand, we have 
experienced the blessed effect of pure morals 
in adorning native gifts and elegant attain- 
ments, and in raising the possessor not only 
in the estimation of the good and wise, but 
in the opinion of those who could not de- 
fine in what the secret charm of unaffected 
virtue and propriety of demeanor consisted. 
If the first child of a family has been 
taught a just sense of right and wrong, he 
will impart it to the rest both by word and 
deed; and though no parent will solely trust 



73 

to the conversation and example of a child 
for instructing the younger branches, yet his 
auxiliary aid is of considerable importance. 
He who has ever governed himself by a re- 
gardtoduty, will be capable of giving advice, 
when those who aim no higher than to 
avoid reproof and punishment, must be un- 
fit to judge for themselvt s. The well in- 
structed child will conduct himself irre- 
proachably, when the neglected youth is the 
cause of constant anxiety to his friends. 
The most amiable boys or girls require to 
have their principles sustained and confirm- 
ed, by our attending to point out those: er- 
rors to which in childhood and in maturer 
age all mankind are liable: but it is the rich 
recompence of parents who furnish the open- 
ing mind with motives of moral action, that 
before the term of pupilage is completed, 
they are their own strict monitors, though 
the curb of authority should not always re 
strain them. No exertion or privation re- 
quisite for preventing bad habits can be so 
severe as the afflictions which these bad ha- 
bits may occasion. To mention only the 
painful apprehension produced in the minds 
of their parents, by doubts of the rectitude 
and the dread of the misconduct of young 
persons whom their own judgment should 
deter from transgression. Or let us but for a 
moment compare the most unabating care 

G 



T4 
of infancy with that fruitless anguish arising 
from the degrading marriage of a daughter, 
or the extravagance or dissolute manners of 
a son. We speak not of errors that entail 
disgrace; yet these, and all the woes originat- 
ing from the misconduct of our offspring, 
may be avoided by the indelible impressions 
which might be made on the mind, by early 
lessons of virtue and wisdom. Farther in- 
struction is unquestionably requisite. Youth 
is beset with snares, and at that critical age 
the suggestions of faithful friends are inva- 
luable; and if confidence has been invited by 
endearing affability in tender years, no re- 
serve will be devised. How advantageous 
must it be, to girls especially, to reveal all 
their wishes to the maternal adviser who is 
most interested in their welfare. We do not 
exaggerate in saving, that upon assiduous 
care in forming early habits, we must found 
our hopes of solid happiness for ourselves 
and for our family in after life. The first 
five years have hardly elapsed when the child 
is sent to school, or is committed to private 
tuition; and as time rolls on, the intervals of 
separation are More frequent, and of longer 
duration. Let mothers, therefore, improve 
th se hours when the little ones are tinder 
their immediate government, to give decided 
i s ndancy to propensities that arc toei n n 
not temporary benefits or momentary elei 



75 

tion, but all that can lead to peace and ho- 
nour in this world, and prepare the soul lor 
an inevitable change to regions unexplored 
by the ken of human beings. The happy pu- 
pils of reason, religion, and virtue, whose early 
impressions have been established into ha 
bits, as they advance to maturity, are dis- 
posed to pursue the must laudable conduct, 
as if by spontaneous impulse Out of the 
fulness of pure sentiments good actions will 
arise with ease and promptitude; and how 
blessed are the parents who behold these 
consequences arising from their wise vigi- 
lance, when contrasted with those who live 
in dread or suffer from wicked and shameful 
misdemeaimurs! Let her who bemoans the 
misery arising from her children's faults at- 
tempt to declare what sacrifices she would 
now undergo for their reformation. It is ea- 
sy, very easy, so to train little infants as to 
render them docile, ingenuous, and steady 
to the dictates of rectitude; but if the foibles 
that oppose these qualities have been grow- 
ing upon them for two or three years, they 
can hardly be overcome until the young 
persons is capable of strenuous efforts to 
conquer bad habits; and before that period 
arrives he may be often involved in disgrace 
and anguish, which the care of his parents 
might have prevented. Whenever a child 
can pay attention to all that passes around 



7t> 

him, it may safely be affirmed that his tem- 
per and disposition are beginning to be form- 
ed. From this moment, therefore, we should 
anxiously preserve him from all evil exam- 
ple. By firm yet gentle controul he should 
be trained to obedience, and by giving up 
the indulgence of her feelings in familiar 
fondling, and treating him with so much 
reserve as may secure to her the power of 
restraining his passions, a mother may ren- 
der filial reverence coeval with the earliest 
traces of memory. But she must carefully 
avoid the least stretch of authority that 
might tempt him to duplicity; for if fear shall 
become his ruling passion, integrity cannot 
subsist, and anxiety to escape blame andpun- 
ishment will mingle disguise and artifice with 
every word and action. Harsh treatment 
spoils the temper and enfeebles the mind, 
by repressing the proper spirit so necessary 
in transactions of any consequence in man- 
hood; or if the portion bestowed by nature 
has been very ample, frequent irritation will 
promote a violent or peevish tendency, 
ich may lender the ties betwixt pa- 
rent and child, or any intimate connexion, a 
galling yoke That hasty interchange of 
angry ( xpressions by which the most valua- 
ble friendships are dissolved, that haughti- 
ness which prevents reconciliation when 
differences inse, and those looks and words 



77 
that lead to the decisions of false honour* 
are often, on one side, the consequence of 
ill-managed infancy. How careful, therefore 
should a mother be, not to let a boy feel 
those violent passions that may hereafter 
render him the victim or perpetrator of 
horrid murder! What discomfort to a hus- 
band, to children, and dependents! What 
interruptions to social intercourse may be 
avoided by bringing up girls to habitual 
mildness! 

If the child has been left almost entirely 
to his nurse's government, his mother must 
look for trials of patience when she takes 
him undeifcher own management. If it has 
been his misfortune to acquire bad habits, 
w r e must gradually effect amendment. We 
must not ruffle, confound or frighten him; 
but mildly teach him first to comprehend, 
and then to perform our injunctions. We are 
not to expect from wrath or coaxing, nor 
ever* from the most judicious treatment, that 
we shall speedily infuse wisdom into a mind 
that has not one distinct notion We must 
bear with and assist mental infirmity as we 
would sustain the tottering footsteps, when 
first the limbs" attempt their office. Thfi least 
error committed in infancy, childhood, or 
youth, should be the subject of animadver- 
sion; but it will frequently require much 
pains to make a young child understand 
6 2 



78 

why he is rebuked, or how he is to amend 
his former conduct. If our counsels can 
be brought to a level with his apprehension 
and feelings, we shall in time convert rough- 
ness, pertinacity, and deceit, into gentleness, 
obedience, and ingenuousness. This happy 
change cannot be sudden, nor should we al- 
low ourselves to be discouraged or impatient. 
If the child has learnt bad customs, he is the 
sufferer, and we who should have taken bet- 
ter measures for his government are in fault, 
and all the atonement we can make is to 
have recourse to the least distressing correc- 
tions. Timid infancy can hardly resist the sug- 
gestions of terror to hide offences if possible, 
and though severity should extort confession 
or promise of strict obedience to our injunc- 
tions, it implants no principle to hinder the 
child from committing a similar fault in our 
absence 

They who know least of infantine ma- 
nagement are generally the most tenacious 
and arbitrary in subjugating a rebellious 
spirit. Time and calm resolution will more 
thoroughly overcome it; and we may ob- 
serve in s.me instances, that though the el- 
der children have been treated with rigour, 
experience has taught the parents more le- 
nity, and they succeed better in the tuition 
of the last than in the first part of their fa- 
mily. Young couples have perhaps vague 



79 

and undefined ideas of filial duly-, and do 
not always reflect, that to secure comfort 
to themselves, or real benefit to their chil- 
dren, obedience must flow ftom proper mo- 
tives. 

That homage to the superior wisdom of 
a parent which constitutes awe, is a salutary 
feeling to keep the volatile disposition of chil- 
dren within due bounds; but it differs essen- 
tially from fear, an abject restraint which pa- 
ralyzes every noble energy of the mind In- 
deed it is impossible exactly to foresee the 
result of any mode that may be adopted to 
impress the human mind; but it is unques- 
tionable that whatever tends to debase or to 
harden, though it may excite or restrain in 
single instances, can have no good effect in 
regulating the conduct in general It is dif 
ficult to say whether there is mere injustice, 
cruelty, or folly in permitting children to 
acquire bad habits than in correcting them 
with impatience. The capricious whimsies 
of a young babe are thoughtlessly indulged, 
and these privileges are often withdrawn 
without consideration respecting his feel- 
ings. It would be much kinder and wiser 
to have always accustomed him to gentle 
restraint, whereby his checked and restrain- 
ed desires would be more subject to reason 
in every stage of life. 



80 

If an infant is greatly agitated, from what 
ever cause, time must be granted to conquer 
his feelings; and speaking to him, as we have 
aiready mentioned, in an authoritative, yet 
friendly voice, will gradually compose his 
mind. All who have paid any attention to 
their own emotions, must know that these 
emotions are not to be checked instantane- 
ously; and if this is admitted in regard to 
ourselves, how gentle and patient should we 
be towards a child under such circumstan- 
ces, Indeed, there is danger, lest by sudden- 
ly and violently urging him to submission, 
you should deprive him of the power of 
self-controul, and render him outrageous. 
If we are sure he is not in bad health, it 
would he wrong when he is cross to offer 
him amusements Let him vent his sorrows, 
wiii *h, however trivial, or imaginary, he is 
unable in a moment to restrain; and if we 
disregard his <tk s, they will soon cease. If 
he can suppress complaints, the love of li- 
berty will soon biuiish them. 

People who ate really kind-hearted ait; 
sometimes inconsiderately the cause of ex- 
posing children to the influence of frantic 
page: hut if it he true that the disposition 
is chiefly foi m< <1 by habit, to excite any had 
passion in tl e flexible mind, by subjecting 
it to these agitatioi s. is a step towards a 
common fault, and the power to oppose it 



81 

is diminished. Servants who are very ten- 
der so far as relates to personal comforts, 
have no scruple in irritating the feelings of 
their charge. We have seen an infant dri- 
ven almost to frenzy by mockery; and if 
these paroxysms are frequent, all self-com- 
mand will consequently be lost. Teazing 
and derision will embitter the best temper, 
and are more intolerable to a sensible spirit 
than pain, or any other trial of juvenile for- 
titude. Elder children are apt to impair the 
comfort, and injure the temper of little ones 
by this practice; but it must be peremtorily 
interdicted. They must be told it is cruel 
and mean-spirited to annoy those who are 
unable to defend themselves. And to re* 
move all causes for discoi d, to prevent and 
to reconcile differences, must be the con- 
stant study of those who manage children. 
If they have been taught the golden rule, 
and daily occasions have been embraced to 
bring its dictates home to their 4 ' business 
and bosoms," they will not be apt to com- 
mit selfish injustice: but we must give both 
example and precept in dealing justly, by 
showing no partiality. The merits of chil- 
dren are nearly equal, if regarded without 
prejudice. If there is a natural defect, it 
claims our pity — if an obstinate fault dis- 
gusts us, it is probably owing to our mis- 
management, and equity demands that the 



82 

means to cure it shall be tenderly adopted. 
Preference to the disposition most conge- 
nial to our own, or to remarkably engaging 
qualities, is perhaps unavoidable; but these 
feelings must not interfere with the claims 
of justice — and though the child who is less 
favoured may prudently bury his sorrows 
in his own bosom, they must be deep and 
discouraging. 

Jealousies and dissensions will arise 
among children, unless they are treated with 
equal indulgence; and the parent must an- 
swer to the Judge of all the earth for the 
sorrows her partiality has occasioned. A fa- 
mily cannot prosper without concord, which 
in a great measure depends on a mother's 
management. One child must not be prai- 
sed at the expense of another, and no invi- 
dious comparisons must be drawn. All com- 
plaints of each other should be disallowed 
— all exulting in conscious superiority ought 
to be checked by mortifying rebukes — and 
children must never be made the agents of 
opprobium, by allowing them to scoff at 
one who happens to be a delinquent. This 
practice destroys affection, impairs the feel- 
ing of shame, and gives rise to resentment, 
retaliation, and insensibility of heart. They 
should be instructed to (eel for one another 
when in disgrace, and they should not be 
prohibited from interceding. 



83 

If any misfortune of mind or body lays 
a child utider disadvantages, our strict at- 
tention should place him on a level with the 
rest of his companions; nor will it create 
jealousy if no improper indulgence has 
spoiled the child's temper, ttven in the 
event of a weakly constitution, self-com- 
mand must be inculcated; for no creature 
has such numerous discontents as a child, 
who, from his sickly state of body, has 
been always allowed to give way to unrea- 
sonable fancies; and the rest of the family, 
whose natural pity would have inclined 
them to go great lengths for his accommo- 
dation will be teased into dislike. We have 
known children consoled under great in- 
firmity by parental fondness, yet gently de- 
nied every improper liberty; and we have 
also known feeble intellect invigorated, and 
in process of time made to appear respectable 
by the prudent and amiable delicacy of a mo- 
ther Whatever may be the imperfections or 
faults of our children, it is foolish and bar- 
barous to expose them. The weakness or 
transgression of a child ten years old, will 
be remembered at twenty, though amend- 
ment has been effected This must be bane- 
ful to girls, nor will boys quite escape un 
favourable recollections. It ought to be of- 
ten held out to themselves to induce to cir- 



84 

cumspection, and it should seal the lips of 
impatient parents who upbraid their young 
people before strangers. 

A child who has been separated from the 
rest, from being unused to competitors, or 
to the family modes, may, on his return ap- 
pear unaccommodating, or peculiar; but 
his mother should lead the rest, by frank 
cordiality, to overcome bashfulness, or sullen 
reserve in the stranger. Even rugged tem- 
pers are softened by endearment, but cold- 
ness and derision would drive the isolated 
child to indifference. 



INGENUOUSNESS, TRUTH & RECTITUDE. 

TO those who bear the sacred name of 
parent, with corresponding sensations, no 
means will appear irksome, or tedious, if 
they lead to effectual caution, and improv- 
ed dispositions. Severe measures are em- 
ployed with painful reluctance in hopes 
of benefiting the objects of our anxious 
care; but we solemnly forewarn the inexpe- 
rienced mother, that when home is rendered 
uncomfortable, the youthful heart will open 
itself to other attachments, and take refuge 
ill exnedients that may undermine the very 
basis of all urtue, ingenuosness, candour, 
and rectitude. Infants are soon estranged 



85 
from their natural protectors when they re- 
gard them with fear; and ignorance of the 
true nature of good and evil, with the dread 
of incurring penalties, makes them disguise 
even innocent propensities. In this manner 
falsehoods and deceptions arise in quick sue 
cession, to the total subversion of truth and 
probity, long before the child has one dis- 
tinct idea of duty or crimes. 

The only guard for innocence in the ear- 
ly stages of life is to exclude temptation, as 
every separate offence, by abating repug- 
nance to evil, approximates to habitual base- 
ness. Forbidden gratifications, and oppor- 
tunities to transgress should not be in the 
power of children; and if we suspect a child 
he must not be interrogated, as it might en- 
snare him to deny, or misrepresent the fact. 
Let parents remember, that our humane 
laws require no offender to condemn him- 
self, and if delinquency is too manifest to be 
overlooked, the expression of grief and hor- 
ror will prove more effectual than wrath 
and chastisement, to awaken a touching 
sense of remorse. 

Human pature is so prone to error, that 
the least approach is to be dreaded; and by 
playful signs of approbation, to encourage 
lisping prattlers to feign ignorance when 
they know how to express a sentence, may 
eventually lead to culpable impositions, By 

H 



86 

gravely making them repeat it till they pro- 
nounce the word aright, the attempt to de- 
ceive will be checked: and they will besides 
sooner learn to articulate distinctly. 

There are numberless ways to divert and 
please a child without countenancing his 
failings; and much fondling, or a profusion 
of endearing phrases is dangerous after he 
has begun to notice circumstances minute- 
ly. He will repeat these kind words and ac- 
tions by rote for some time; but when he 
shall have discovered that we are pleased, 
he will soon resort to them aa flattery. 
Fawning must be gently discouraged; as far 
from maturing affection, it substitutes de- 
signing semblance in place of genuine feel- 
ing. We may put a stop to these affected 
endearments by saying, " if you love me, 
you will wish to make me happy; and you 
can only make me happy by being a good 
child." 

To remove all temptations to artifice oram- 
biguity. let a child have no cause to be afraid 
of coming to the point at once in every 
request. Not only plain dealing, but obedi- 
ence may be superinduced by this liberty; for 
1 he may be taught to make it a point of ho- 
nour to give up his inclination, if he findi 
that we cannot approve of it We can never 
l opportunities to convince him 
thai, sel ['denial will upon the whole.dromote 
and to s im that 



87 

dour and honesty are the '-best poll. 
Every advantage gained by low arts may 
be represented as degrading, and attended 
with secret anxiety; and these wholesome 
truths, when deeply imbibed, become a firm 
foundation for upright and rational conduct. 

Infants, who are perfectly ingenuous, are 
sometimes too communicative; but it is dan- 
gerous to curb this foible till the mind can 
make some clear distinctions. They should 
hear or see nothing unfit for repetition, and 
their candour must not be perplexed; for if 
their parents reprove them for rehearsing 
what is in itself a fact, the remonstrance of 
a servant will easily persuade them to artful 
concealments. 

Tale-bearing as it is is commonly called, 
is a habit pregnant with degrading conse- 
quences, as it seldom fails to produce censo- 
riousness and falsehood; and we may limit 
even a young child's communications, so far 
as to hinder him from accusing any one. 
* That you must not speak to the disadvan- 
tage of the meanest creature," is a rule that 
does not contradict the foregoing observa- 
tions. 

The inexperienced mother can hardly be- 
ware of the manifold snares which environ 
her little ones, if she is not at pains to pre- 
vent the enquiries and pretended secrets, by 
which a detestable inquisitiveness is some- 



88 

limes excited to answer the puposes of an 
insidious domestic. By listening at doors, 
peeping into letters, and other mean devices, 
a child is taught to purloin intelligence, and 
probably hereafter, to be a pest to society. 
Infants must be allowed to speak the truth, 
but they must also be taught the utmost ab- 
horrence of all indirect means of satisfying 
their curiosity; but we should not suggest 
the idea, unless we discover that they have 
been guilty of such practices. As soon as 
they can understand that it is ill-bred and 
foolish to chatter about their own concerns, 
or the affairs of others, they must be made 
to avoid it. A reasonable Steady attention 
will not give rise to perpetual dictates and 
inhibitions which unlit a young person to 
act with self-posscssson and discrimination. 
Temptations may be kept out of a child's 
way, and foibles may be restrained without 
letting him perceive much of our solicitude. 
Let him see that we believe him capable of 
£Ood conduct, and he will respect himself. 
As infantine follies subside, let him gradual- 
ly receive marks of confidence in his ho- 
nour and secrecy, treating him as a friend 
and companion, and he will make returns 
of frankness, unconscious of any reservation 
that might endanger his safety/ His sense of 
i itudc and propriety will withhold him 
from actions he would blush to own; and 



encouraged by candour and gentleness, he 
will apply to us toprevent the consequences 
of venial errors. The unspeakable advan- 
tage of interesting children in our concerns, 
and discussing with them such points as are 
proper to be laid before them, can only be 
known to those who have had the happiness 
of profiting by the acute, but respectful sug- 
gestions of filial counsel, and have enjoyed 
the internal delight of seeing the lively girl. 
and animated youth, improved by the exer- 
cise of their judgment. It will be found 
very useful to keep in view that the period 
is not very distant when our children are to 
act with perfect independence, and that they 
may greatly surpass us in worth, in ability, 
and in every honourable distinction. This- 
deference will help to govern our own hu- 
mours, dispose us to render obedience plea- 
sant, promoting mutual affection, placid and 
substantial enjoyments. 

In families of rank and opulence, where 
multiplied engagements encroach on paren- 
tal cares, an experienced governess ought to 
form the disposition and first habits of those 
who are to become leading members of the 
community. In a few solar revolutions no 
expense will be spared for masters to teach 
accomplishments that may be deemedfashion- 
able; but it is at least of equal importance 
to preserve health, and to shield children 
H 2 



w 

from that harsh or inconsistent management 
which so sadly perverts the infant mind* 
The governess will doubtless guard against 
bad customs, and instil lessons of virtue, 
which, with all first impressions, ought to be 
received through the medium of cultivated 
intellect; but after the utmost care to store 
the mind with moral perceptions, the watch- 
ful superintendent must aid a youngnovice in 
establishing habits of acting up to his own 
convictions, by removing all occasions of 
offence. Infants are too weak to resist temp- 
tation and opportunity, and, as we formerly 
observed, since habits are the result of repeat- 
ed sensations, the utmost care to prevent 
transgression is well bestowed. 

Where there are several nurses, an enlight- 
ened superior is yet more necessary; not on- 
ly to counteract the disadvantage of copying 
unpolished manners and language, but like- 
wise to prevent the attendants from setting 
the children at variance, by each extolling 
her own favourite, and depreciating the rest. 
AH the encomiums are generally on beauty, 
vivacity, or on neatness of dress; and though 
no harm be intended, much is often occa- 
sioned by engendering envy, vanity and 
strife. 

The pain and fever which attend the rut- 
ling of the double teeth, and changing the 
Others, unhinge without confining children. 



91 

and makes them drowsy, listless, or fretful, 
when difficulties occur in their tasks. We 
must not b& too quicksighted in observing 
these foibles, and more exercise and relaxa- 
tion are necessary than when they are in full 
health. Our sympathy, however, is not to 
be intimated, as it might tempt the children 
to exaggerate their sufferings; and when they 
are really indisposed, it will be proper to tell 
them, that for the sake of truth, and to ena- 
ble us to employ proper remedies, they must 
state the symptoms exactly. 

As about this time they ought to have 
some charge of their ordinary dress and ne- 
cessaries, when they are uneasy, without be* 
ing seriously ill, they may be diverted whilst 
usefully and actively employed in arranging 
their drawers, giving and receiving their 
clothes from the laundress, or assisting the 

younger children in these performances 

They should learn that their parents are de- 
lighted to observe punctuality in these lesser 
points, as neglecting them would gradually 
lead to failure in higher duty: and they 
should be often reminded that small faults 
generally entice a child to commit greater. 

They should also be made to know, that 
allthev are permitted to use, is the property of 
their parents, and that honour demands them 
to manage it carefully; and that even if it 
were their own, it would be sinful to spoil 



9% 

the most ftifling article, as it may be useful 
to poor people These admonitions are 
more effectual to induce care and attention, 
than incitements arising Iron* selfish and 
sordid motives. 

Parents object to bring little ones to table 
as simple diet is best for them; but the erring 
kindness of servants will convey to them a 
more abundant share of good things than a 
prudent mother would allow. A child's in- 
tegrity may be saved, and his stomach pre- 
served from injury, by giving him a small 
portion of the luxuries that cover the parent- 
al board; and besides, his manners must be 
improved by admission there. If the deli- 
cacies are first given, he will not be tempted 
to excess in finishing his dinner with plain 
food, of which he should be allowed as much 
as his appetite requires. But we cannot ap- 
prove of compelling him to eat of any dish 
he dislikes. If necessity should constrain 
him to make a meal of that particular food, 
his antipathy will give way to the urgency 
of circumstances. 



RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION THE BASIS OF 
MORAL HIXTITUDB. 

INTELLECTUAL improvement in- 
cludes the whole term of existence In child- 
hood, we endeavour to form dispositions 



93 

and habits for youth. In youth, it is our ob- 
ject to qualify our pupil for maturity. In 
every stage, to fix our thoughts on the pre- 
paration for eternity, is the only infallible 
guide for instruction. The mother, as she 
clasps her smiling babe, should resolve to 
keep steadfastly in mind, that he is the un- 
doubted heir of immortality, and to give 
him an early and exalted sense of his glori- 
ous destination. This belief firmly establish- 
ed, will add a grace and refinement to his 
ordinary actions. Godliness is indeed profita- 
ble above all things. Besides insuring eternal 
bliss, it is the copious fountain of virtues, 
the most conducive to our present welfare, 
and makes a child attentive to the comfort of 
all w r ith whom he is connected. He who, 
from his remotest recollection, has loved and 
adored his Heavenly Father, will prove af- 
fectionate and submissive to his earthly pa- 
rents, and obedient to his instructors. As he 
advances in age, untainted by vicious propen- 
sities, he $ ill apply with vigour and diligence 
to every virtuous pursuit. If he fails in his 
endeavours, he will not fail through miscon- 
duct — and if he succeeds, he will prosper 
with honour to himself, and unalloyed satis- 
faction to his friends. The best concerted 
schemes often disappoint us in the aggran- 
disement they have promised; but the esteem 
due to genuine worth, and the heartfelt peace 



94 

inspired by conscious rectitude, no external 
misfortunes can destroy. 

It' any motive can make a young person 
truly faithful, and strict in the performance 
of all his duties and relations in life, it must 
be the reference to a Divine Superintendent 

and the prospect of certain responsibility 

These convictions may be imparted without 
formal lectures, which are usually so irksome 
to children, that impatience prevents any im- 
pression on the mind; but every mental 
faculty, and moral feeling may be quickened 
and improved by giving a cheerful and in- 
genious turn to remarks on common events. 
These daily occurrences afford the most 
suitable lesson to affect young minds with the 
delineations of the true and attractive charms 
of virtue, or to expose the deformity and 
egregious folly of vice. The grand arcana of 
instruction are to combine with it some fa- 
miliar and agreeable associations; and we 
may oppose a darling passion indirectly and 
pleasantly, by pointing out its consequences 
in others, so as to engage a child's awn sen- 
sibility and understanding to resist its seduc- 
tions. But the most efficacious means to 
guard against, or to reclaim from error, is to 
accustom our pupil to nightly self-examina- 
tion. It will teach him to reverence his own 
heart, and to shun offences which he knows 
must soon be the cause of self-reproach and 
disapprobation* 



95 

All is novelty to infants — and in tracing 
and explaining the beneficent activity of the 
great Author of nature, we may inspire 
them with a desire to imitate his goodness. 
Tne Almighty is not to be represented as 
distant — but as ever near, ever observant of 
the child's conduct, and ever bestowing mer- 
cies. We should also infuse into them the 
hope of spending eternity in the presence of 
unblemished holiness, and lead them to con- 
sider how carefully they should avoid a 
thought, word, or deed, unworthy of such a 
privilege. It is by this deep and habitual 
sense of the soul's pre-eminence over the 
body, that they will perceive a clear distinc- 
tion between good and evil, when their 
minds are able to grasp these ideas — and we, 
by whom they are communicated, must so 
affect our own hearts, as to give the force of 
truthto our exhortations. When we contem- 
plate all within us and about us, we must feel 
and discern that endless life is intimated by 
incontestable proofs. The bare idea of eter- 
nity is too immense, too stupendous to be 
entertained, except by a spirit conscious of 
inherent claims to that bright reversion. 
Powers and capacities formed for continual 
increase, and endless expansion, cannot be 
limited by our three-score and ten years — 
and the wonderful effects of immaterial spi- 
rit, which, even in this imperfect state, has 



96 

a separate and independent capacity for ae 
tion, may confirm our faith in the promises 
of eternal life, exhibited in the word of God. 
This assurance of hope ought to awaken a 
steadfast zeal to secure for ourselves, and 
for our offspring, an inheritance without 
which existence would be a curse, and old 
age, to reflecting minds, a series of misera- 
ble despondency. .Every means by which 
pleasure is communicated ^o the senses must 
tail; but religion presents an exhilarating 
cordial, when all other delights are succes- 
sively deserting us. With what grateful 
homage will the aged invalid recal to mind 
the instructions of an affectionate parent, 
who led him to lay up treasure in those re- 
gions of glory to which he is hastening. 
Riches may purchase accommodations and 
mercenary attendance, but they cannot pro- 
cure release from pain, nor reconcile us to 
the irresistible encroachments of decrepitude 
and disease. It is the exclusive excellence 
of consistent piety, to rise superior to mortal 
infirmitii 

An infant should be accustomed to stated 
periods of intercourse with his Creator, as 
soon as he can articulate a few devotional 
expre u * and these ought to be adap d 
as much as possible to his youthful appre 
IU only puzzle ami we I \ 
him bj which to his feeble 



07 

understanding, would seem as an unknown 
Jang;uao;e There will be more sincere wor- 
ship in a simple short prayer, than in diffuse 
and amplified petitions, even if the child could 
fully comprehend their meaning. It is dan- 
gerous to encourage Up service; and to in- 
duce him to suppose that he shall be heard 
for much speaking. We must inculcate the 
necessity of accompanying every word 
by the deepest attention, reverence and fer- 
vour; and the young mind can command 
these exertions but for a short space of time. 
The idea of an invisible, but powerful 
protector, seems congenial to the feelings of 
infancy: and is so effectual, that the omni- 
science and the omnipresence of the Al- 
mighty may be employed both as a restraint 
from evil, and as an encouragement to obey 
his commands. Far from lessening the gay- 
ety of heart so engaging in youth, the 
blameless conduct resulting from a reference 
to the divine inspection, cheers the spirits 
by exempting a child from the sorrows, dis- 
quietudes, and sufferings inseparable from 
transgression. Accustomed " to feel the pre- 
sent Deity ," he will seldom fall into boiste- 
rous excesses, or debasing arts; and he will 
submit to controul, to compulsory exertion, 
sickness, or pain, with fortitude and meek- 
ness, never to be found where there is no 
soothing hope, or sense of duty. In every 
i 



98 

circumstance and situation, this is a principle 
of potent efficacy, to prevent those errors, by 
which the advantages of natural talents,libei al 
education, and the fond hopes of parents, are 
lamentably frustrated A steady belief in 
the all-seeing God, is an awe which no dark- 
ness, change of place, or distance, can re- 
move — and it restrains, without depressing 
youthful minds, if love of the supreme Be- 
nefactor has been properly instilled. God is 
to be represented as not only great and glo- 
rious, but as infinitely amiable and gracious. 
We are equally to exclude extravagant en- 
thusiasm, and slavish superstitious fear from 
the sentiments we seek to inspire. For, to 
warm the affections, without enlightening 
and satisfying the understanding, can never 
produce operative and genuine piety. The 
indissoluble connexion between religion and 
moral rectitude must ever be maintained. 
Ifyc love God, ye wili avoid evil anddogood; 
— a maxim which ought to be inculcated on 
the mind from the earnest capacity to re- 
tain impressions. 

Every improvement in opinions, or prac- 
tice, depends on convincing children that re- 
ligion is friendly to all innocent enjoyments. 
To disfigure her august and lovely form 
with the sable garb of gloom and austerity, 
shows little acquaintance with her true spirit, 
or with the human heart. 



99 

If Sabbath-dav duties are made sad and 
burthensome, a child's own feelings will con- 
tradict our assertions, that to be good, is to 
be happy. We may edify without dejecting, 
we may amuse by scripture stories and 
hymns, such as can be understood by our 
infantine auditors, and we may deeply in- 
terest by representations of that state which 
eye hath not seen, but which imagination is 
eager to conceive. The difficulty will be to 
find words by which accurate ideas may be 
conveyed. We must encourage our pupils 
to ask explanations; and by placing the 
same thoughts in different points of view, 
we may at least engage an assiduous atten- 
tion, which in time must improve them in 
knowledge. 

When the reasoning powers are in some 
measure commensurate to the subject, the 
doctrines of the Christian religion are to be 
gradually and clearly unfolded — but until 
the mind be able to examine proofs, it would 
be improper to give the least intimation that 
proofs are to be demanded. When we think 
a young person can weigh and attend to 
them, we ought previously to prepare our- 
selves so as to lay open the most complete 
and irrefragable testimony. Christianity, 
established on the firm foundation of con- 
vincing evidence, will soften, enlarge, and il- 
luminate the heart, and give life and spirit to 



100 

duties the most discouraging and opposite to 
their passio* s and interests. No parent has 
ever repented bestowing such instructions, 
but numbers have bewailed the omission 
when too late. 



MATERNAL TUITION. 

IT is good for an infant to be unable to 
recollect when a whole day passed without 
employment. The habit of patient applica- 
tion is in itself of vast consequence, and by 
commencing early, a sure, though gradual 
progress is attainable, without disgusting our 
pupil by compulsory exertions. A parent, or 
a governess, who has guided the first move- 
ments of reason, has peculiar facilities for 
fixing a child's attention. He should be pre- 
pared for study, by telling him some of the 
many diverting, or touching events, that are 
to be found in books; and when he is very 
anxious for such entertainment, we may 
put off the relation for some time, adding, 
• how fortunate are the children who can 
furnish themselves with such pretty stories — 
you should make haste and learn to 
'.."' A little giil, or boy, perhaps hears an 
excursion proposed, in which the elder chil- 
dren are to partake. They naturally entreat 

j \ likewise, and we have another oppor 



101 
tunity of inculcating the advantages of in- 
struction, by replying, " you are not yet 
prepared — but you may hasten the period 
for such indulgence. Learn to read fluently; 
and to remember and compare the things 
and circumstances mentioned in books, 
with those you may meet when you go 
from home, You will then have much 
greater pleasure in new sights, and I shall 
have no cause to be ashamed of your ignor- 
ance/ 5 Here are powerful motives; the hope 
of enjoyment in travelling, and the fear of 
incurring contempt If we can but awaken 
in the mind a deep felt desire for informa- 
tion, and preserve a moderate degree of ar- 
dour in the pursuit, the pupil will, in due 
time, learn to make inquiries and distinctions. 
In process of time he will contract aliking for 
the volumes that assist him in these intellec- 
tual operations, if the preceptor shall take 
care not to disgust him by making it a wear- 
isome task. When averse to his lesson, 
instead of using the rod, which only increas- 
es the dislike, let the book be laid aside, 
saying, "amusement is the reward of dili- 
gence, and since you are idle, you must 
keep your seat." He will soon consider this 
a greater evil than his task, which must be 
withheld until he asks it as a favovr. We 
have known little ones happily unspoiled by 
super- abundant caresses, or extravagant prai- 
12 



102 
ses, for trivial performances, take great 
pleasure in their initiatory studies, merely to 
obtain their mother's approbation. Walking 
with her, or seated in her lap in the twilight 
when they could not so well divert them- 
selves, they learnt to put letters together; and 
these sounds being familiar to their ear, it 
soon became easy to form syllables on the 
book. Slight circumstances may be con- 
Terted into much use in managing young 
scholars. If a child is remarkably dull, an 
elder brother, or sister, should help him to 
prepare the portion he is to read, and when 
he comes to go over it as a lesson, he will 
deserve to be commended, which will 
encourage perseverance. 

It is certainly incumbent on the teacher to 
make the most of time; but over-anxiety 
retards the progress of education. Lessons 
to a beginner should be short, though fre- 
quent; and gradually increased, as difficulties 
yield to practice Helping him to observe 
a few amusing particulars, will render study 
interesting; as for instance, to find out the 
changes marie by adding one or more letters 
as in old, older; cold, coldness; scold, scold- 
ing, &c. Ten minutes of animated and fre- 
quent exertion will do more to improve a 
Tyro than hoi:rs of drawling and regardless 
poring over pages; and wemusttike care to 
sllow no bad habits in pronunciation, get 



103 

tures, or attitudes. They may be prevented 
with little trouble, but to cure them, when 
once acquired, would be a laborious endea- 
vour. When tempted to give way to our 
own indolence, or the child's solicitations, 
for a lengthened term for play, let us look- 
forward to futurity; to the greater hardships 
arising from inert and trifling habits; and let 
us turn his attention to the happy effects of 
the time already spent in learning what ap- 
peared at first a distasteful drudgery. After 
all, we must not be too eager to extort gi eat 
efforts, that we may neither endanger health, 
wear out the spirits; nor create disgust, by 
prolonging tasks beyond the power of vol- 
untary exertions. When a very young pupil 
seems drowsy, we should find him some ac- 
tive employment for a few minutes, without 
imposing it as a task, and he will become 
fresh and gay. This will promote his im- 
provement more speedily than chastisement 
and harsh expressions, which make children 
detest their books. An older pupil should 
be kindly and cheerfully exhorted to resist 
lassitude; and by saying that "all good child- 
ren strive to overcome every inclination 
which opposes duty." 

We must habituate our pupils to complete 
their attempts in the best manner of which 
they are capable; and the surest preventive 
of carelessness is to oblige them to repeat 



104 

the task, till due diligence results from the 
execution. Ttiflers ought to have a limited, 
but sufficient time for each employment, and 
our requisitions should be moderate, but 
peremptory. Children soon discover irre- 
solution in their rulers, and are consequently 
more remiss in their application. They 
ought to be taught to set a high value on 
time; to consider that it cannot be recalled^ 
and that there is but a limited portion of 
that precious possession for all they have to 
perform. a These sentiments are infinitely 
preferable to a spirit of emulation, which 
often pours poison into the heart, whilst it 
improves the head. 5 ' 

We would again and again beseech pa- 
rents and teachers not to discourage dull and 
diffident scholars. A little more time and 
assiduity will enable them to accomplish the 
most valuable ends of study — if the mind be 
not depressed, they may, perhaps, outstrip 
at the end of their career, the more lively 
genius, who at school regarded their labori- 
ous efforts with disdain. It will be said, the 
boy soon forgets his alarm or sorrow: true, 
but not till he gets out of school. The mist 
of fear obseuivs and weighs down his pow- 
i ; at the very critical moment when he 
itands most in need of their support. 

Before any hook is put into the hands of 
Children, itb tendency should be scrupulous 



105 

ly scanned; for they never ought to read any 
sentiment that may not be adopted as a prin- 
ciple of conduct. Pompous descriptions of 
s splendour and decoration, or any suggestion 
that diminishes the value, or disturbs the 
contentment found in humble utility, leads 
to affected sensibility, or ostentatious bene- 
volence; or whatever is unfavourable to sim- 
plicity of heart and manners, ought never to 
be admitted. We cannot approve of fables for 
very young children. They are incapable of 
drawing moral inferences; and the accounts 
of reasoning animals, and speaking plants, 
incline them to credulity, or at least to con- 
found their ideas. And, perhaps, it may ex- 
cite some fertile imagination to embellish a 
recital of common incidents. Fictitious re- 
presentations should be withheld from them 
till experience has taught the juvenile mind 
to distinguish between facts and fancied re- 
lations Simple narratives of good moral 
tendency, which are entirely probable in real 
life, evince the danger of bad passions, and 
the blessings resulting from worthy principles 
and conduct, are the only species of tales 
with which they may safely be made ac- 
quainted. The youthful mind is prone to 
what is marvellous, and we must carefully 
correct this propensity. It is a sacred du- 
ty, that to all the inquiries of children, 
answers are to be returned with the strict- 



106 

est veracity, and in terms the most easy 
to be understood. Superior abilities, and 
superior worth are attained only by strict 
adherence to truth in knowledge, sen- 
timent, and communication; and we must 
not suffer children to hear or read what 
might subject us to the risk of being detect- 
ed by them in evading or abusing their curi- 
osity A little girl happening to pay a visit 
with her parents, met with a book of Fables 
in the drawing-room, and with much labour 
and difficulty read a page or fwo Her as- 
tonishment in reading of frogs having spoken 
to boys, was expressed with an ingenuity 
very amusing to the company; but their re- 
marks occasioned much difficulty to her 
mother in preventing the child from disco- 
vering that untruths were put together to 
divert little girls. She had not yet arrived 
at an age to distinguish between invention 
and falsehood, and her genius was too pene- 
trating to be easily satisfied. Her remarks 
may be given hereafter, and in the mean 
time, it will be sufficient to observe, that we 
may find in books of geography, and natural 
history, particulars that ought to be known 
and remembered, capable ofraisingasmuch 
Wonder and admiration as a young heart can 
contain A selection of this kind for the 
nursery would l>c very entertaining for the 
maids, and make deep impressions on little 



107 

ones, when read or rehearsed to them. 
Parents, by relating these informations, 
have it in their power to make children 
more distinctly acquainted with each cir- 
cumstance, and to call to their recollection 
what each country produces, and what par- 
ticular object, either natural or artificial, are 
to be found in it. This would be an easy 
and pleasant amusement for their earliest 
years; and it might prevent mary silly 
and illiberal prejudices arising from ignor- 
ance. 

We have enabled beginners to read amu- 
sing books, by giving lessons with an elder 
child, who was capable of reading or spell- 
ing the most difficult words, and much art- 
less emulation appeared in the infant, who 
w 7 as thus stimulated to attempt what seemed 
so easy to a brother, or sister, only a year or 
two farther advanced in life. It would be a 
vast improvement to collect all words that 
exceed one syllable, and to place them pro- 
perly divided at the commencement of he 
chapter, with a glossary couched in the most 
simple terms. This would afford more as- 
sistance to the scholar, than separating the 
parts as they occur in the book: for children 
who are accustomed to have the syllables 
divided, are quite at a loss, when they meet 
them otherwise joined. Emphasis, and 
punctuation must be taught from a subject 



108 

with which the child is well acquainted, for 
if he has not been previously familiarised 
with it, his feelings and understanding can- 
not second our instruction. 

The lessons in Mr. Lindle} r Murray's 
spelling book, are admirably 
purpose; and indeed, we have seen no ele- 
mentary volume which in so small a com- 
pass unites so great advantages From the 
same judicious friend, an abridgment of the 
Old and New Testament would be an 
valuable service to the rising generation. It 
is a great error in many stories intended for 
tfants, to describe the arts and transgres- 
sions of bad children. They ought not to 

.: of lying, deceit, fraud, artifice, dis 
or any other wickedness, further 
than what cannot be avoided in their inter- 
course with the world. AVe must also give 
to religion and virtue, the most engagi g 

No painful feeling should bi 
ciated with the^e sentiments, which are of- 
ten deeply injured by making att 
on public worship burthensome. If an in- 
fant be made s a some 
task, before he can . ri with f] 
and if he be required to commit to mem 

: tin extracts from the sacred volume, 
which he does not understand, i ] 

:omplish w\ t c s -ninn — if he 

M r y in 



109 

Hie task required — if he be taken to church 
before he can sit there quietly, and be chas- 
tised for restlessness — can it be possible for 
him to love precepts and performances so 
distressing? The parent defeats her own aim 
which might be effectually promoted by 
reading to him, and explaining the holy 
scriptures, so far as he could understand the 
subject He can receive no benefit by going 
through the chapters before he is able to put 
words together, and he contracts a dislike to 
any book perhaps, which has cost so much 
painful study. The exertion of mental fa- 
culties in a child can only be encouraged by 
mingling entertainment with intelligence, 
and testifying a high respect for useful know- 
ledge. If his mind be filled with profound 
veneration for the church, as God's house, 
"where people meet to implore his blessing 
and direction,' 5 and if he be not brought 
there until he has acquired self-command to 
comport himself with decorum, he would 
perhaps, through life, cling steadily to the 
pleasing and edifying lessons of his infant 
yeai s. In assisting the operations of the ten- 
der mind, either on sensible objects or upon 
religious and moral truths, the first princi- 
ples are to be explained in a few simple 
words, leaving the child to reflect upon 
them; for by introducing many ideas, we 
shall confuse and distract his attention. After 

K 



110 

some time wb should encourage him to teli 
us his own sentiments, and we may proceed 
to show him the changes made by human 
art and industry on material substances, or 
the connexion of one virtue with another, 
and with his own happiness, so as to excite 
the use of his understanding in the pursuit 
of information. We have known Sunday 
regarded as a day of peculiar enjoyment, be- 
cause the mother had more leisure to con- 
verse with her family. She did not, how- 
ever, confine herself entirely to evangelical 
instruction; but as far as her ability extended, 
the works of nature and the inventions of 
man, in the whole circle of science, were 
made subservient to piety and moral im- 
provement, inciting the ardent spirit to car- 
ry some accession of knowledge and good- 
ness into each succeeding week. This plan 
had a much better effect upon the heart and 
understanding than long chapters, psalms, 
and hymns, committed to the memory, with 
weariness and disgust, and without affixing 
accurate ideas to the words repeated. The 
♦short portion allotted will be cheerfully learn- 
ed, when the child knows it may be easily 
performed; and a mother who has not much 
time on week days, should make it a rule 
to converse with her children on the day of 
rest. She cannot comply with the sacred 
institution more effectually than by infusing 



Ill 

into the minds of her offspring some useful 
knowledge connected with serious duties; 
and all her endeavours to inculcate human 
wisdom, and to qualify her charge for world- 
ly pursuits, may be assisted by a constant 
reference to the great duties of life. 

In learning geography, children may be 
made to perceive the Divine wisdom, pow- 
er, and goodness; though to a little child, this 
study is to be offered merely as an amuse- 
ment. On the maps and globe, places may 
be distinguished with as much ease as one 
letter from another in the alphabet; and el- 
der brothers and sisters may recapitulate that 
knowledge which they have early acquired to 
much advantage,in making the infant acquain- 
ted with the capital cities, rivers, mountains, 
and productions of different countries. There 
will still be much to learn; but when certain 
particulars are deeply impressed on the me- 
mory, further attainments are more distinct 
and pleasant: and in every branch of educa- 
tion, it is better to know a little accurately, 
than to have many crude notions, and super- 
ficial informations. 

Learning a chronological table of the 
most remarkable eras and events, wifl fur- 
nish precise recollections on which the mind 
may rest in the study of history. In reading 
history, a reference to maps,and to biography* 
will make many particulars moi^e interest. 



112 

mg. The same method should be observed 
with regard to newspapers, which all young 
people ought to peruse with great attention. 
Where a family reads sociably, and con- 
verse on the different topics, very valuable 
improvement is derived, and even little chil- 
dren receive great benefit. 

Expertness in calculation is early acquir- 
ed, if arithmetic be attempted in due time, 
and there is no branch of instruction of great- 
er utility. We have observed numeration 
to be the most puzzling of all simple rules, 
and we therefore, generally commenced 
with addition. We have also found the stu- 
dy to prove less tiresome to children, by 
bringing them quickly forward to reduction, 
and giving lessons in each of the preceding 
rules. Their connexion and dependence is 
more readily understood in this manner than 
by continuing long upon the same section, 
in beginning addition, the sums should be 
formed only of the first figures, and when 
0, 7, 8, 9, are added, these highest numbers 
should be placed at the bottom. To render 
education less laborious is to increase the 
happiness of many years in life; and to be 
the means of preventing mental anguish and 
bodily suffering, without reducing the amount 
of useful acquisitions, is worthy of the most 
sublime philanthrophy; especially when we 
into the account that severity mav dr 



liS 

base and harden, but can neither invigorate 
nor illumine the infantile mind. Although 
application may perhaps be extorted, and 
any mode of treatment may not entirely 
destroy the superiority of a highly gifted 
and well constituted mind, still, on the aver- 
age, that exertion which is most free and 
cheerful, will always be the most successful. 
Health, vivacity and candour, must not be 
risked to hasten proficiency a year or two; 
and we may safely as.sert, that violent and 
depressing measures will not essentially pro- 
mote that objeet. Coercion will fix the vola- 
tile> and rouse the indolent; but, by begin- 
ning early, a constant and regular attention 
may become so habitual, as to render harsh 
compulsion unnecessary. We are convinced 
it is highly detrimental to solidity of judg- 
ment, and to purity of morals, to emancipate 
a youth from school at a very early period. 
He must possess unusual sedateness if he 
escapes self-conceit in attributing his attain* 
ments to superior powers of intellect, and 
superabundant leisare will lay him open to 
many temptations. Happy would it be for 
some tall boys who have completed the or- 
dinary course of classical studies, to be con 
fined to the business of the school-room, in 
making themselves acquainted witti Eng- 
lish literature. 

*2 



114 

Rules of grammar must be learned by rote 
but a child will not comprehend them unless 
he be taught their use in conversation by fre- 
quently asking him the parts of speech in any 
sentence he may have occasion to express. 
We must not be angry, though he cannot, 
without frequent explanations, enter into our 
meaning The spirit of investigation which 
causes him to hesitate, and to seek for farther 
definitions in every instance, should be encou- 
raged, and by placing the subject before him 
in different lights, some ray will at length be 
elicited from the point where it is most want- 
ed. 

It is very injudicious to make needle- 
work, knitting, and other feminine employ- 
ment, a sad and burthensome task; for 
with the utmost tenderness in the teacher, 
the little girl has many painful struggles 
ere she can be expert We should excite a 
wish to excel, and be useful, and accustom 
the child to be busy, whilst at work, to "per- 
form it with neatness, and then to take some 
diversion. Her own little implements of in- 
dustry should be entrusted to her care, and 
pntil si has got the habit of laying them up 
properly, we should require her to show us 
daily how she disposes of them, as it will 
teach her to excu ' in matters of more 
exmscquen i 



115 

We have already observed how much ei 
der children may be benefitted by assisting 
to teach the younger; and in every branch 
of education, the eldest of a family may im- 
prove himself, and instruct the others, ac- 
cording to Mr. Lancaster's excellent me- 
thod. Let the children be seated according 
to ages; the eldest gives out a small portion 
to be repeated audibly by the next, proceed- 
ing till they all have recited it} and then 
another till the whole be learnt. 

Lessons in reading may be prepared in 
the same manner; and the parents ought to 
attend that the little ones be prevented from 
trifling, and the elder restrained from domi- 
neering To allow a right ofcontroul to 
one child over another always creates dis- 
sension; and there is usually some contrari- 
ety where many hate the management, 
which perplexes and frets young children. 

The most experienced and amiable in- 
structor stands much in need of self-vigi- 
lance; and if at any time our emotions be 
too keenly uttered, we should at least make 
a pause to allow the pupil time to collect 
the ideas which our impatience has dissipa- 
ted. Attention must be quickened and ar- 
rested, and a refractory, presumptuous, or 
inconsiderate disposition must be checked; 
but this may be effected without severity. 
The exhausted feelings of a ehild who has 



116 

been often subjected to reproof and punish- 
ment are ill calculated for intellectual exer- 
cise; and if he remains sensitive under inflic- 
tions, his mind loses much of that vigour 
which enables it to rise above difficulties. 
We have no doubt that it is a sincere, 
though very erroneous solicitude for the 
child's welfare which maks the mother un* 
dertake penal discipline in the course of 
education; but let her make the experiment 
of conveying the lessons as a benign in- 
structress, and besides sparing herself the 
dreadful pain of torturing a creature who 
can neither resist or expostulate, she will 
find in the child more speedy improvement, 
and many moral advantages. A mode of 
influence which excites the best feelings and 
faculties of the mind, must be attended with 
superior benefits; and we appeal— -not to 
those whose youthful fervour and anxiety 
now misleads them — but to the aged and in- 
genuous matron* who calmly looks back on 
her own management of beloved children, 
some of whom, perhaps, did not live to reap 
the fruits of learning so dearly purchased. 
We appeal to the experienced mother, whe- 
ther her own conscience does not acknow- 
ledge that penalties and punishments have 
at times been inflicted, when patient teach 
ing might have had at least equal efficacy 



11.7 

Severity, confounding the dim apprehen- 
sions of children, is so repulsive to the ef- 
forts of genius in embryo, that it operates to 
weaken and to retard, if not to destroy its 
powers; and we have wondered that the na- 
tural tenderness and justice of maternal 
hearts did not suggest this plea. A very 
young pupil may be gradually induced to 
comprehend, that he and all his fellow-be- 
ings rise to higher degrees of happiness in 
consequence of their own exertions — that 
on the employment of youthful years depend 
the pleasures and prosperity of advanced age 
and the felicity of an endless state of retribu- 
Ison. 

f They may be led to compare former ig- 
norance and imbecility with the satisfaction 
and benefit derived from more illumined in- 
tellect; and heedlessness, or pertinacity may 
be corrected by limited confinement in our 
presence. This answers every salutary pur- 
pose to be expected from chastisement; with 
the further advantage of disposing the child 
to all the reflection of which he is capable; 
and it preserves the parent from many acts 
of overstrained authority, which, at a future 
period, might be remembered with compunc- 
tion. When Pericles, the Legislator of Athens, 
was on his death-bed, his friends believing 
him insensible to their lamentations, were 
bewailing their loss ? and recounting his 



118 

great actions — u you forget, said the expir- 
ing Chief, ttiy greatest boast — it is thus— 
that I never made a citizen of Athens wear 
mourning." In the narrow sphere of paren- 
tal or preceptorial power, what a consoling 
reflection that we have never made a child 
shed a tear which due self controul should 
have prevented! The heart feels in its in- 
most recesses the acknowledgments of a be- 
loved child, departing from this world, and 
imploring blessings on the parent who ne- 
ver caused one moment's uneasiness that 
could have been spared. 

When our family are all in health arouncj 
us, we can but faintly conceive the fril 
force of these sentiments; but when any of 
those dear ties are rent from the agonized 
bosom, a word, a look, will be recollecied 
with poignant regret, or unspeakable com- 
fort. 

Volatile or impetuous children ought to be 
educated under the immediate superintend- 
ence of their parents, to guard them against 
errors they want sufficient foresight to avoid 
and which, if often repeated, would become 
habitual. This inconsiderateness is a natu- 
ral misfortune, or the consequence of mis- 
management. In either case it is most pitia- 
ble, and parents ought patiently to make 
best of it — as they hope for mercy at the trK 
bunal of unerring justice. 



119 

At a public school, such a child would 
be incessantly falling into difficulties, and 
many have become wretched reprobates 
from the effects of extreme rigour, whom 
moderation and instruction might have in 
time led to amendment. As iron is harden- 
ed by repeated strokes, so are the feelings of 
the human mind fatally blunted by success 
sive pangs — especially if attended by de- 
grading circumstances; and children that are 
often punished are apt to lose that s^lf-res- 
pect which is the source of laudable con- 
duct. 

Exquisite sensibility is the greatest mis- 
fortune to the offspring of severe and unre- 
lenting people; under gentle sway it might 
expand into superior talents and virtues, but 
it has seldom coolness, or resolution to 
withstand the rude shocks of rigorous treat- 
ment. We believe this may in some mea- 
sure account for the union of great defects, 
and very amiable features in the same cha- 
racter, whose mind like the mechanism of a 
fine timepiece, has been overstrained and 
deranged in some of its parts by violence — 
a mode of management which can hardly 
do good, and frequently creates a perverse 
dislike to employment, and to salutary re- 
straints. 



120 

REWARDS CALCULATED FOR MORAL IM- 
PROVEMENT. 

GRATUITIES, rewards, and penalties, 
are powerful, but transcient incitements, and 
temporary ends, must give place to durable 
advantages. The ultimate tendency of par- 
tial inducements is so uncertain, that re- 
wards and penalties ought to be distributed 
with a very sparing hand. No motive but 
a desire to do what is right should be often 
presented to children. These views lose 
much of their influence when mecenary 
hopes arc often fostered; and the grief or dis- 
pleasure of an anxious mother, or of an at- 
tentive father, will but slightly aftect a heart 
pre-occupied by terrors, or rendered callous 
from frequent struggles to sustain them. 
People who do not consider that the feel j 
ings and sentiments of the mind are the on- 
ly consistent springs of action, treat infants 
as automatons, whose exterior movements 
alone are to be regarded, but they should 
reflect that the means employed to produce 
these actions become grafted in the disposi- 
tion, and unless reason he mingled with re- 
strictions so as to leave free scope to the 
mental faculties, the child can have no de 
terminate rule of conduct. Rigid authority 
Cakes away all the pleasure of duty, and 



121 

we seldom perform well, or consistently, any 
thing which is regarded as a sacrifice to ne- 
cessity. Many of the bribes, rewards and 
penalties, resorted to in the nursery, have 
given rise to principles radically vicious. 

It will, perhaps, be very difficult to pre- 
vent servants from inflicting punishments, or 
promising bribes — but every possible means 
should be employed to withhold from them 
a power of which even parents do not al- 
ways make the best use. Toys, sweetmeats, 
and trinkets, ought not to be given as tokens 
of approbation. They should never be men-, 
tioned, but as things of course, and in such 
a manner as to evince the insignificance of 
such trifles. Children make rapid and decid- 
ed deductions from the words and actions of 
those whom they regard with peculiar ven- 
eration, and though they are not always to 
be paid with empty words, they never should 
be bribed by the promise of trivial and use- 
less rewards. When substantial proofs of sa- 
tisfaction in their conduct are given, they 
should consist of books or materials necessa- 
ry for their different studies and employ- 
ments; which will tend to associate the ideas 
of diligence, perseverance, and well earned 
applause— nor will it be difficult to dispose 
them to prefer the good opinion of their pa- 
rents before all other considerations. To 
strengthen this influence, the distribution oi 



122 

premiums or penalties should centre fin the 
lather and mother alone, and the nurse 
should be strictly forbidden to encroach on 
this privilege. She may express commenda- 
tion or displeasure, and remind her charge 
that she must strictly represent their beha- 
viour, which should be frequently inquired 
into during the course of the day, and in ap- 
proving or rebuking they must be taught 
that "to be happy they must be good:" The 
great variety oi toys bestowed, and the im- 
moderate pains employed in amusing infants 
in the first stage of life makes the commence- 
ment of application to lessons intolerable. 
A babe must doubtless be entertained; but 
if we take care to preserve unvitiated a taste 
for simple diversions, a few rattling toys will 
please him in the first stage of infancy, and 
when he can understand more rational pas- 
times, the coloured prints in a little book 
may delightfully engage his attention. By 
degrees a systematic arrangement may be 
adopted; and besides prepossessing him in 
favour of books, by associating pleasure with 
learning, he may receive useful information. 
We knew a girl who, at four years of age, 
could give many particulars in the Histories 
of England and Scotland, which she had 
learnt in this manner; and a juvenile library 
afforded more gratification to her, and to her 
brothers, tljan a toy-shop supplies to the 



123 

creatures who break their play-things, or tire 
of them two or three times in a week. We 
earnestly wish to see due improvement in 
this department of juvenile edification and 
amusement; and though little knowledge ac- 
crues from these early lessons — that little is 
still some acquisition, and is infinitely pre- 
ferable to a restless desire for novelties. 



SERVANTS, PRIDE, HUMILITY, AND 
HUMANITY. 

ALL parents will recoil. at th w supposition 
of allowing inhumanity, injustice, or despo 1 - 
tism, to have an ascendant over the minds 
of their children: but these odious propen- 
sities will augment daily, if children be allow- 
ed to behave with haughtiness, or incivility, 
towards their inferiors. They should learn 
that the rich and poor, have all one great 
Master in Heaven, who is no respecter of 
|>ersons — that they ought to treat the domes- 
tics as they should wSh to be treated them* 
selves, and that to these humble friends they 
have been indebted for their greatest accom- 
modations. If they be ill, and the complaint 
be not infectious, the little charge should re- 
pay their services, by waiting upon them; 
and, indeed, all young persons ought to 
know the duties of a sick nurse, so far as to 



124 

be able to direct the mercenary attendants 
in the performance of that office. In how 
many situations are young students, and na- 
val and military officers, almost solely left to 
the care of each other, and how few females 
are there who pass through life without oc- 
casions to call forth their best ability in be- 
half of suffering parents, or friends. 
A domineering temper is easily checked in a 
young child, by showing him his own helpless 
and dependent state; and if we are careful to 
prevent birth, fortune, beauty, or grandeur, 
from being talked of in his hearing, as if they 
conferred merit on the possessor, pride, and 
vanity, will seldom infest the heart. 

Inhumanity is unnatural. It is the con- 
sequence of bad example. If children use 
animals with cruelty, or suffer themselves 
from harshness — if the nurse, with a loud 
burst of laughter, shall call upon her charge 
to observe the quaking limbs and nodding 
head of the aged mendicant, or the odd ges- 
tures of the idiot, or madman, he will soon 
come to deride infirmity, and to scoff at, 
and teaze a creature labouring under the 
most deplorable calamity, if any thing in his 
appearance can give rise to ludicrous ideas. 
A feeling mind can never be disposed to 
view the wreck of intellect as a source of 
amusement, and there is nothing more de- 
table in human nature, than the propen- 



125 

sity to augment that misfortune by derision. 
Children should be led not only to pity eve- 
ry species of distress, but to make active ex- 
ertions for its relief. With these notions 
they will never affect the false and despica 
bly selfish sensibility, which flies from the 
sight of pain or sorrow. 

It is usual for parents to place infants fai 
some years under the government of nurses, 
and then to insist that all familiarity with 
inferiors should cease. It would be more 
rational to have our little ones chiefly un 
der our own influence, and so to gain then: 
confidence, as to leave no room for regret- 
ting an intercourse so soon to be terminated. 
As a baby in nursing will imitate the man 
ners most frequently presented to him, we 
should afford the models that may be most 
advantageous — and in preventing a child 
from passing much time in the nursery, or 
from going to the servants" hall, or kitchen, 
reasons, must not be assigned, which may 
insinuate a dislike, a disdain, or a distrust 
of the inmates — it may suffice to mention 
the risk of accidents by fire, by scalding wa- 
ter, knives &c. besides the interruption to 
occupations in which the servants may be 
engaged. By making infants easy and hap- 
py, and entering into their amusements, 
they will have no desire to quit our apart- 
ments, where at least they will be safe: and 
l2 



126 

though parents do not always remember 
that the eye and the ear ot infancy trans- 
mit impressions to the mind, still less cau- 
tion is to be expected where there is no ac- 
quaintance with refinement. A taste for low 
or vicious pleasures is communicated by 
uncultivated associates, whether in a supe- 
rior or servile condition, and though paren- 
tal prudence may for a time suppress it, the 
right of acting independently will discover 
the latent evil. Let not the inexperienced 
mother trust implicitly to appearances. 
Could she remove the veil which sometimes 
conceals the true state of her children when 
out of her sight, and look forward to re- 
move consequences, she would be struck 
with horror. This page jerhaps maybe 
perused by a matron who can yet recol- 
lect the terrors denounced, to make her ex- 
act in repeating the false tale which was to 
gloss over misdemeanors, or how punished 
if detection arose from childish simplicity: 
those only who have known the perplexi- 
ties of transgression, the agonies of com- 
piiiiction, and have witnessed the pan ful 
struggles young people undergo when bet- 
in instruction, Or some blessed incident has 
awakened a sens** of remorse — those 
\ .. can know thefujl value of maternal 
care which provi against infantine per- 
ion. Much eloquence has been noblj 



127 
devoted to the cause of African emancipa- 
tion: and we earnestly hope our humble, 
but true remonstrances, may excite some of 
these ab=e advocates to point out in more 
impressive language, in what manner pa- 
rents may deliver their beloved pledges from 
the worst of slavery, the thraldom of fear, 
and of evil. The most exalted station docs 
not place mothers above this duty, as all 
the immunities pertaining to rank and for- 
tune cannot exempt their offspring from the 
frailties, follies, and consequent sufferings of 
our common nature. Even the care of a 
deputy the most completely qualified, will 
not wholly satisfy her who has attentively 
considered the numerous impediments to 
the personal and mental security of her chil- 
dren; she will "feel all the parent rising in 
her heart?' at the bare possibility of ills so 
terrible; and she will often engage her in- 
fants in "full free converse," by which, 
without intention of tale-bearing, they will 
divulge any impropriety they have seen or 
heard; and the servants, aware of such art- 
less communications, will endeavour to 
avoid any w r ord or deed that might be dis 
approved. Far be it from us to insinuate 
that such motives influence all domestics. 
There are numbers whose sincere goodness 
and fidelity, established on the immovea- 
ble rock of religious principle, would not 



128 

for worlds mislead their charge; but in an 
affair of such importance, all possible mis- 
carriages are to be obviated, and it ought 
to make mothers conscientiously scrupu- 
lous in giving to, or receiving recommenda- 
tions for persons whose conduct involves 
the dearest comfort of families. Encourag- 
ing kindness and liberal remuneration is due 
to these humble but beneficial friends; yet 
implicit confidence can be of no real service 
to them, and it may be very hurtful to our 
children. With the best intentions they 
may commit fatal errors; nor should a pa- 
rent, by yielding to the nurse the sole go- 
vernment of her infant, allow herself to be 
superseded in the dependence and affiance 
by which he is to be formed for every duty. 
To wound the feelings uf a worthy domestic 
by distrust, would be ci uel and injudicious; 
but the delicacy with which her proceedings 
arc regulated, and her good sense, will make 
her willing to submit to restrictions — and 
the mistress of a family should never relin- 
quish by disuse her right to direct her own 
affairs, more especially all that concerns the 
management of her children. 

Nurses when engaged ought to be inform- 
ed, that if they give i >: mediate notice when 
an accident happens, no blame will be at 
tached to them; and if they fulfil this condi- 
tion, we must take care tney have no cause 



I 



129 

tor regret. Many infants, who now labour 
under incurable deformity, might have been 
saved from that misfortune by timely surgi- 
cal aid. If we blame children themselves 
when they are hurt, they will be tempted to 
conceal an accident till perhaps it is too late 
for a remedy. They ought to be encouraged 
to apply to us in every disaster, or distress, 
which may prove a safeguard for their per- 
son and mgrals; but they cannot have cou- 
rage to be always open and sincere, if we give 
them cause to repent of their sincerity. 

A servant who would on no account take 
liberties with her master's property, will not 
hesitate to bring his child to a house where 
he may be exposed to contagious disease; 
and in towns, numberless infant lives have 
been lost by this temerity. Many afflicting 
events and accidents might be avoided, by 
an agreement of families in the same street 
to depute two or three members by turns to 
accompany the children in their walks and 
in going to, and from school; and a league 
of affection and duty for the safety of hu- 
man beings would be at least more wise and 
honourable than an association for the pre- 
servation of game, or for any other intention 
pleasure or interest. 

Commiseration and bounty are virtues of 
the earliest growth — but to give these feelings 
a right direction, they must be exercised in 



ISO 

good deeds, which require some effort. Chil- 
dren may be taught to take care of shoes, 
and suits of clothes, that when they are past 
their use they may relieve with them the wants 
of poor little boys andgirls, who have only such 
charitable supplies to defend them from the 
cold. Or little masters and misses may give 
up gratifications and amusements for the 
sake of dedicating to this purpose the money 
which these indulgencies might have requir- 
ed, and it will have a much better effect on 
their character than large pecuniary gifts ob. 
tained from parental liberality, and distri- 
buted without trouble or reflection. 

Immoderate puerile fondnes? for the low- 
er creation is to be discouraged; but neglect* 
or maltreatment must be seriously reproved; 
and if often repeated, the favourite animal 
should be transferred to the care of a more 
humane and considerate child. 

The enormity of killing, or hurting the 
most despicable reptile, or of robbing birds* 
nests, and of enslaving the free tenants of 
the air, should be reprehended in the most af- 
fecting strain; but a bird rendered helpless 
by captivity may be accepted, and tenderly 
cared for- Sights of pain and horror — the 
agonies of dissolution in animals that are 
deprived of life for our subsistence, or the 
unrelenting severity with which they arc 
sometimes trained for our amusement, if rcn • 



131 

dered familiar to children, will certainly 
blunt the amiable sensibility of their nature, 
and ought to be withheld from their obser- 
vation. 



LOQUACITY, TACITURNITY, CONFIDENCE, 
AND BA8HPULNE8S. 

TO counteract all extremes ought to be 
one great object of education, and as tacitur- 
nity is a very obstinate defect, it requires to 
be opposed in its first symptoms Loquacity 
may be moderated by paying no attention 
to the prattling child; but to enable dullness 
to express ideas, and to prevail over diffi- 
dence to violate itself, demands veiy judi- 
cious, unremitting, and tender management. 
We must begin by tracing the origin of the 
infirmity, and if it seems to proceed from 
bashfulness, the remedy may be found in 
setting the child at ease, and encouraging 
him to rely upon his own judgment. We 
must talk to him in a free and kind manner; 
and if he makes no reply, tell him what 
should be said, mildly urging him to repeat 
the words. He should likewise be frequently 
introduced into the company of intimate ac- 
quaintances, who will take the friendly trou- 
ble of joining in our endeavours. He must 
gradually mix with larger circles, for bash- 



132 

fulness can only be cured by frequent inter- 



course with strangers. 



If there be any external impediment to 
speech, professional advice should be ob- 
tained without delay; for in such cases sur- 
gical operations generally succeed best in 
infancy; and when the child attempts to use 
the organs of articulation he should be direct- 
ed to speak a few words deliberately, and 
quickness of utterance by degrees, according 
to the facility he attains from frequent prac- 
tice. Some simple and diverting poetical 
lines committed to memory, and recited of- 
ten with care and attention, will essentially 
promote his improvement. 

Excessive diffidence is often mistaken for 
an indication of mental weakness; but even 
considerable deficiency may be remedied 
by timely care. It will be necesary to en- 
gage the child in frequent conversation, to 
discover in what respect his intellect is dis- 
ordered, or feeble, and the rest of the family 
ought to be strictly prohibited from laugh- 
ing at his absurdities, which would quite 
discourage a shy temper, or excite a rattling 
young creature to greater volubility. 

If a child has so much sense as to be sL 
Ient 9 great hope of improvement may be 
entertained, unless his manners betray down 
right idiotism — but at all events, a mother 
will be acquitted by her own conscience 



if she employ every means to arrange an5 
expand his ideas. Too rapid diffusion might 
however, involve them in obscurity. We 
must, for some time, talk to him only on the 
most common topics, correcting misappre- 
hensions, supplying necessary information, 
and often recapitulating the same subject. 
This is a melancholy duty, but a very small 
share of success will repay the trouble; and 
we have known strong symptoms of imbe- 
cility so far removed by maternal care, as to 
render the child respectable and amiable,' 
though not brilliant in society. 

We lament to say we have also known 
a few instances in others, whose defects in 
early age were not more apparent than 
those; but by negligence, or rebukes and 
punishments for silliness, at times too keen- 
ly felt, and for improprieties which, without 

assistance, they were unable to rectify with 

the deepest commiseration, we have beheld 
the blameless unfortunate youth sinking in- 
to a total deprivation of mental energy. 
In the first example, the faculties were de- 
veloped and invigorated by fostering affec^ 
tion; in the latter, unaided by a more effi- 
cient power to draw forth and to sustain 
them, every day produced some cause to 
hasten their decay. 

Defective intellect is sometimes accom- 
panied by irrational merriment, restlessness 
M 



134 
and loquacity; and if this is attended to in 
the first or second year, it may be in a great 
measure restrained. Seventy will introduce 
low arts, but the invariable influence of a 
kind, patient, and attentive director, by the 
mere mechanical force of habit, will im- 
prove the behaviour. The follies of such a 
child should be treated with uniform gravi- 
ty; to laugh, or even to deride him, would 
inflame him to farther extravagancies, but a 
sorrowful rebuke will hardly fail to abate 
his mirth; and even younger brothers and 
sisters may be taught to follow this method. 
It is almost superfluous to add, that in these 
circumstances, mothers may perceive how 
much depends on their close inspection, du- 
ring the years of infancy. 

We are apt to err greatly in regard to re- 
served children, who are often little attend- 
ed to, whilst the bold and vivacious, whose 
exuberant flow of spirits might be the better 
of some abatement, are treated with cares- 
ses and smiles of approbation. 

Those who are too delicate to push them- 
selves forward, ought to be brought into that 
notice which would convert bashfulness in- 
to graceful modesty. The arrogance of a 
confident child must be repressed by cold 
reserve, nor should genius, sprightliness, 
humour, or any talent, induce us to give 
way to a presumptuous or volatile disposi- 
tion. 



135 

The missile shafts of ridicule are some- 
times successfully aimed against these ene- 
mies to propriety, which arise from vanity, 
egotism and affectation: but they must be 
directed by a strong and unerring hand. 
Derision will exasperate and harden, rather 
than correct mistakes, unless it be softened 
by delicacy, and it is always improperly ap- 
plied against aukwardness, or shyness, as it 
only adds to the painful sensibility from 
which these foibles proceed. 

Young people ought to be encouraged to 
unrestrained conversation with theirparents: 
if denied this liberty, and only used to chat- 
ter with companions of their own age, they 
cannot have just notions of colloquial inter- 
course, and will be defective in the style of 
their language, or in modesty, freedom, or 
discretion; all of which may be acquired by 
a habit of weighing their own opinions, and 
communicating them to those who have the 
kindness and judgment to explain what is 
right. By talking with the instructors, who 
live only to promote their advantage, they 
will learn to contribute their share of the en- 
tertainment, without encroaching on others, 
or betraying the disgust which an unplea- 
sant companion may excite — they will learn 
to detest detraction or unqualified praise, 
and to state every circumstance they men- 
tion in a fair, temperate, and perspicuous 
manner. 



136 

It is of great consequence to attain thai 
self-dependence which may set them at ease 
with their superiors, as without a high sense 
of honour and propriety, bashfulness will 
drive a youth to take refuge in low company 
in which alone he feels self-possession, and 
cheerfulness; and with the finest talents, ac- 
complishments and qualities, the too diffi- 
dent young man will not be engaging; and 
he will lose the opportunity when a season- 
able and modest display of ability might 
lead him to fame and fortune. 

The successful labours of Mr. Braidwood, 
Mr. Joseph Watson, the Abbe L'Epee, 
and others, have proved beyond question, 
that the deaf and dumb are susceptible of 
instruction; but the expense precludes num- 
bers from receiving it at the public institu- 
tion But much may be done at home by 
patient attention. As soon as it is ascertain- 
ed that an infant wants the sense of hearing, 
his mother should provide herself with lai , 
printing types and ink; and on pieces of 
white stiff pasteboard, let her impress the 
names of the most familiar objects that con- 
of few letters, increasing the vocabulary. 
and takil 2 loi I words as the infant im- 
prove 6 cannot begin too early to call 
his attention to these lessons. The habit of 
looking at them and obferri refi 

ence to the article pointed out, is of va-t ad 



137 

vantage in the exercise of intellect, and as 
communications are made only by the eye, 
or the touch, the pupil's concentrated atten- 
tion will soon prove effectual. Tneywho 
wish to enter deeply into this subject under 
the guidance of an able professor, may con- 
sult Mr. Joseph Watson's work, or the 
Abbe L'Epee on "the method of educating 
the deaf and dumb;" but to assist a plain un- 
derstanding we shall lay down some easy 
rules. We believe this to be the first attempt 
to impart the faculty of speecn to young in- 
fants who are deprived of aid from the ear, 
but we are assured of its practicability; and 
when the organs are most flexible, their use 
undoubtedly may most readily be acquired. 
Suppose we wish the child to read k4 eye," 
the word is to be shown to him, directing 
his finger to his eye. or our own, and trying 
to make him imitate the motion of our lips 
in pronouncing it. When he is able to pick 
out the card on which eye is printed, we are 
to show him the ietters EYE separately, 
and placing them together, to cause him 
to comprehend that they are the same 

with the word he was accustomed to see, 

Vf en he has learnt a few words, they 
are to be shown to him repeatedly every 
day in the manner which we have described, 
and the same effort to articulate is to be ex- 
cited. When he seems to know them in 
m2 



138 

separate letters, the cards are to be shuffled, 
and pointed out to the eye, the ear, the nose, 
a bed, a box, &c. &c. we are to ask him to 
show the corresponding name, and to pro- 
nounce each as they occur. The printed 
verbs are to be explained also in separate let- 
ters,and showing him the action they imply, 
as to eat, by eating; to drink, by drinking; to 
sit, by sitting; &c "Give me your hand" is 
to be explained by repeating it with a pause 
between each word, exciting the infant to 
express them after us, and showing him to 
extend his hand. 

Every action must be illustrated in the 
same manner, and he must be taught to pro- 
nounce all the syllables addressed to him — 
His nurse should almost incessantly induce 
him to articulate words. If this be done in 
a playful and cheerful manner, it will afford 
both amusement and instruction, and pro- 
mote the effect of those lessons in reading 
daily given by his mother at short intervals. 
As soon as he is able to use his limbs he 
should receive lessons in dancing, to vary his 
occupations, and a slate and pencil should be 
given him, with a copy to teach him tofoim 
the letters. The science of numbers may be 
taught him in the manner by which he learnt 

o now the names of different articles, but 
when he is required to say one, he must 

ave one counter presented to him. when he 



139 

is to pronounce two, two counters, and so on, 
and he may at the same time iearn that the 
corresponding figures traced on his slate are 
to express the same quantities. To diversi- 
fy his amusements, drawing should be taught; 
him. Other tasks added to these already 
mentioned should very soon be the employ- 
ment of girls — and either sex, by these early 
cares, will be prepared for a public education; 
besides, that they prevent much of the ill 
temper by which deaf and dumb children 
distress their parent^ forwant of having their 
attention agreeably engaged. 



COURAGE, FORTITUDE ^CHEERFULNESS. 

A sound imagination is a blessing next in 
degree to a clear conscience and a healthy 
constitution, and when parents discover 
puerile terrors, they ought to spare no pains 
in eradicating all belief in supernatural agen- 
cy; but it would be more effectual and easy 
to prevent children from hearing of ghosts 
and witches, for unless gifted with superla- 
tive strength of mind, it is scarce possible for 
them wholly to (merge from the cloud of 
superstitious prejudice instilled into them 

with the first consciousness of dangers. 

"When a child has had the misfortune to be 
enslaved by these terrors, to combat them 



140 

by authority under any form can be of lit- 
tle use, as constraint has no power over the 
mind, though it may enforce external per- 
formances. Good humoured derison may 
expose the absurdity of fears so ridiculous 
and irrational, and induce the child to vo- 
luntary endeavours to banish them: but a 
lively sense of the Divine omnipresence, and 
trust in Almighty goodness, is the only effec- 
tual remedy lor a weakness which often pre- 
vails ov< r the convictions of reason. "The 
Lord is my light and my salvation, whom 
shall I fear? The Lord is the strength of my 
life, of whom shall I be afraid?" No exhort- 
ation or argument c«*n inspire confidence 
and peace, compared with the sentiments 
conveyed by these words, and the suscepti- 
bility of a youthful heart is peculiarly fitted 
to feel comfort in the belief that neither so- 
litude nor darkness are excluded from the 
presence and protection of the great Being 
"whose mercies are over all his works." 

A youth u ho has been preserved from 
enervating apprehension ei her of spirits, or 
of severe inflictions — who has learned to go- 
vern, not to disguise his feelings — who has 
always dared to ap| ear stick CM he ideally is 
, — who has imbibed an independent and an- 
imated sense of honour, will never fail in 
manly intrepidity. 



141 

Dishonour will appear to him far more 
terrible than death; and if he has been taught 
that death itself is the passport to endless 
glory, his valour will be sustained by the 
clearest dictates of reason. He may be pre- 
vented from mistaking a quarrelsome tem- 
per for personal courage, by convincing 
him, that it is the part of a bully to seek 
rencounters, because he knows himself to 
be equal to the combat; and that it is a 
mean and dastardly spirit which provokes 
contention, from a consciousness of supe- 
rior bodily strength. 

Equestrian attempts, the use of fire arms, 
or swimming, are seldom attended with 
danger except in clandestine enterprizes. 
Let the parent, the tutor, or the friend, give 
good-humoured liberty and attendance, and 
youthful eagerness to brave dangers may be 
moderately and cautiously indulged. 

The frequency of accidents in maritime 
excursions induces us to suggest that all- 
children should be informed that the sinking 
of the body in water is occasioned by rais- 
ing the arms. If they shall be kept down 
and constantly moved, the head will rise 
above the surface, and if the motion of wak- 
ing is imitated by the legs, the shoulders 
will be elevated bevond the level of the 
fluid. 



142 

Boyish pugilism is but animal instinct, 
bordering on brutality — true valour is in- 
tellectual, and every difficulty in education 
ought to be represented as an opportunity to 
exercise it 

Strenuous efforts in any laborious per- 
formance will be more cheerfully endured 
when considered as the legitimate results of 
a quality so dearly prized by all boys in 
themselves and others Artificial hardships, 
which some fanciful parents have invented, 
to prove and to confirm resolution, we 
should hold in abhorrence as a deviation 
from the straight path of integrity; besides, 
when children have once detected their ru- 
lers in sporting with their feelings, there is 
an end to all confidence. 

They ought, however, to be taught, that 
natural evils arising from the visitations of 
Providence are to be improved as occasions 
for exercising their strength of mind; and in 
the form of self-possession and passive for- 
titude, this heroism is equally appropriate to 
the feminine character. Both sexes ought to 
learn, even in infancy, to endure inconve- 
nience, disappointment, losses, sickness, pain, 
or any ill, without impatient complaints, or 
seeking commiseration further than to ob- 
tain the requisite aid in using means to re 
move the cause; and when accidents happen, 
fhe parent or nurse ought not to betray 



143 

emotion, or to offer fond condolence, which 
generally tempts the little creature to prac- 
tise upon our feelings, and to fancy himself 
a personage of great importance. Assistance 
should always be immediately and cheer- 
fully afforded; but if endeavours for their 
relief should be unsuccessful, they must be 
exhorted to bear distress without mean im- 
portunity for unavailing pity. Expressions 
of extraordinary sympathy generally in- 
crease this weakness — we should rather as- 
sure them that though we feel for their suf- 
ferings, and would be happy to afford any 
alleviation, there are children who undergo 
much more without a murmur. 

A child who has symptoms of illness 
must be cared for without delay; but it will 
be necessary to conceal our alarm or solici- 
tude. Apprehension is powerful, and the 
fatuity of parental fondness sometimes 
makes children imagine themselves much 
worse than they really are, which must cer- 
tainly impede the progress of their recove- 
ry- 

Though unerring wisdom has denied to 

us the power of preventing many evils, the 
means of mitigating our children's suffering 
is placed within our reach. The energetic 
breast of fortitude will be sufficient for its 
own defence or deliverance, when inert or 
too sensitive minds are bereft of all resource. 



144 

We should teach our pupils that supine and 
helpless acquiescence is neither wise noii* 
amiable: that it is incumbent on them to em- 
ploy all lawful means to repair disasters, 
and to better their condition; but having dis- 
charged that duty, to submit to the will of 
God, who knows best our true advantage. 

There is a correct line between cheerful* 
ness, the sun-beam of the soul, which throws 
on all objects and events the most favour- 
able aspect, and between the effervescence of 
giddy mirth, incapable of consistency or 
caution. Cheerfulness is so essential to the 
enjoyment of life, that a saturnine complex- 
ion of mind ought to be carefully counteract- 
ed, A dull child, besides being furnished 
with a gay and active nurse, should have 
lively companions; and his parents, treating 4 
him with great gentleness, should encourage 
him to join in the playful gambols which 
they may invent. When he ceases to be an 
infant, artificial amusements must be gra- 
dually withdrawn as they would be detri- 
mental, by giving a habit of dependence on 
the recurrence of incidents to exhilarate his 
spirits. Languor is often the consequence 
of idleness, or of ill arranged employment. 
When attention seems exhausted by one 
study, the change to another will rouse the 
mind f and it* that dors not succeed, active 
exertion* must be allowed. Dancing and 



145 

fencing are ready resources for boys, and do 
mestic duties supply an agreeable diversity 
of feminine occupation. 

Young people who have been born to a 
small share of fortune's favours, may be re- 
conciled to their lot, by learning to estimate 
the advantages of escaping the heavy taxes 
imposed on her minions. The temperate 
board is an antidote against many excru- 
ciating maladies; and the girl who adjusts 
her own simple toilet, in oeing denied the 
gaudy trappings of magnificence, is more at 
ease than the votary of fashion, harassed by 
unfaithful, insolent, or aukward attendants. 
Let children be so instructed as deeply to 
consider that happiness has its seat in the 
mind, and depends almost entirely upon 
themselves They should be often reminded 
that tbose who trust in God, and are con- 
vinced he orders all for the best, and who 
are conscious of humble, but sincere endea- 
vours to perform their duty may be sick 
or sorrowful, but they cannot be unhappy; 
and the brightest zenith of prosperity may 
beclouded by unruly passions. In giving 
lessons of fortitude, the situation of the pu- 
pil must be considered; and whatever trials 
seem most incident to their journey through 
this vale of tears, must be intimated in such 
a manner as may prepare the child to act 
ttith inflexible rectitude. 

N 




146 



TOYS AND RECREATIONS. 

THE poisonous ingredients in painted 
toys should be frequently mentioned in 

wspapers, and popular works, that the 
knowledge may descend to the poorer clas- 
ses. At a fair the honest labourer spends 
part of his hard earnings to purchase a gau- 
dy doll, or glaring rattle, little aware that 
these gifts of fondness may prove injurious; 
but they are far more pernicious to the 
poor man's child than to the descendant of 
a wealthy house. The latter has a coral and 
splendid bells to engage his attention, and a 
constant attendant to prevent him from daub- 
ing his clothes with paint; but the former 
has the toy suspended to his waist, and fre- 
quently no amusement but what he derives 
from it. Coral is unfit for rubbing the gums 
of a child, and we have even heard of great 
injury occasioned by its being broken, and 
not adverted to till the mouth had been cut 
by the sharp fragment. A piece of liquorice 
root, or even a piece of light wood, well po- 
lished, in the usual shape given to coral for 
a gum stick, is perfectly safe, and lighter for 
the hand of a babe than coral. 

A few simple articles capable of various 
combinations might afford entertainment to 
children unalloyed by grief for the destrue* 



147 

tion of a pretty plaything. Small pieces of 
the lightest wood, in the shape of bricks, 
with mattocks, hand barrows, &c. of the 
same materials, are fit recreation within or 
out of doors, and building is an amuse- 
ment of which children are not apt to tire. 

Woodcut into the form of bricks is pre- 
ferable to any ponderous material, in case 
of slipping on the little architect's feet. This 
was our opinion and practice long before 
Miss Edgeworth's excellent treatise was pub- 
lished. Several coincidences with her sen- 
timents, and with those of other celebrated 
writers, evince how invariably the same 
lights are presented to all who consult na- 
ture and common sense, whatever disparity 
there may be betwixt their abilities and 
ours. 

Where we have borrowed from these lu* 
minaries, it is marked by a quotation, in so 
much as memory has served us, and we are 
far from presuming to compare our humble 
labours to theirs, in which amusing, inge- 
nious, and beautiful decoration are calcula- 
ted for the meridian of high life and cultiva 
ted intellect. To the wreath appropriated to 
literary merits we make no pretension, but 
a simple book of receipts, directing the pro- 
portion and mixture of ingredients for do- 
mestic use, is as serviceable in its own place, 
as the profound researches pf the ptulosp'* 



148 

pher to analize productions of various cli- 
mates. Where no -extraneous 'ornament dis- 
tracts her attention, the housewife will at 
once comprehend the process she has to 
conduct; and the guardian of infancy will 
fii.d here no more than plain maxims that 
may assist, but cannot perplex her under- 
standing. 

When the weather permits, the open air 
is most conducive to health and cheerfulness, 
and if they can have an inclosure within view 
of their mother's window, it will be attended 
with many good effects. The ground should 
be cleared from stones, stumps of underwood 
or whatever might lacerate in case of a fall. 
Boys have great pleasure in wrestling, and 
if, care is taken to separate them on the first 
appearance of irritation, their desire for ath- 
letic combats will constrain them to com- 
mand of temper; an attainment which ought 
to be cherished by precept, example, ajid ha- 
bit. Love of play should not be discourag- 
ed The same eagerness of pursuit, under 
proper management, may be converted into 
ardour for learning, and useful activity. 
Playing at hand-ball, and bounding with 
the Bkipping-rope, arc diversions of first rate 
i \ cllence when young people are confined 
to the house; and girls may also be taught 

t(^ |]*e them, which will facilitate a graceful 
agility vei \ useful in dancing. Walking 



149 
nimbly, and running on tiptoe with the 
knees straight, and the whole body, head, 
and limbs, in easy positions, is likewise a 
good introduction for the pupils of Terpsi- 
chore. 

These are the only amusements in which 
the parent or governess should assume the 
direction; and though the nurse may parti- 
cipate, she ought not to be the inventor of 
the childrens' plays. If elder people un- 
dertake it, the children will grow listless, or 
insatiable for variety. So far as may con- 
sist with due regard to their safety and ne- 
cessities, it is good for them to be thrown on 
their own resources, and to learn that it is 
contemptible helplessness to depend on oth- 
ers, when they are able to serve themselves. 



GOOD MANNERS AND COMPANY. 

MANY errors pointed out here are little 
known in the elevated and middle ranks of 
society; but if we descend a degree, we shall 
find mistakes originating from the sacrifice 
of remote and permanent advantages to pre- 
sent convenience. To the numerous, re- 
spectable, and worthy classes, who are too 
much engrossed in the active performance 
of duties to spare time for the perusal of vo- 
luminous and abstracted works, our slight 
n2 



150 

notices are peculiarly dedicated: and we 
would beg leave to call their attention to 
the consequences of excluding their little 
ones from social parties. Many of the acci- 
dents that have plunged families into depths 
of irretrievable sorrow, have taken place 
when the nurses were called away by unusual 
preparations and attendance, or seizing the 
opportunity of their mistress being engaged 
by attending to their own business or amuse- 
ments, have left the poor infants free from 
restraint, to rush into danger. 

Children may be fitted, by early atten- 
tion, to appear in company without discre- 
dit to their education, by vulgar, aukward y 
or rude behaviour. Let them be daily taken 
to table, taught all due observances to their 
parents, and to each other, and they will be 
quiet in the parlour, or drawing-room, and 
give no disturbance, though admitted to a 
side table. Young people who have at all 
limes been accustomed to take a kind inte- 
in each other's conduct, will be able in 
their mother's sight to manage the little one's 
and the hints they give not as arrogated su- 

riority, hut with conciliating mildness, 
will prevent many omissions or otVenees, 
though in the nursery such rules might be 
quite forgotten in unbounded merriment. 

Were no other advantage to accrue but 
exemption from the pains and penalties oF 



151 

conscious deficiency, the forms of politeness- 
shouldbe made familiar at a very ear y age : by 
seeing and conversing with strangers. They 
who have been denied that benefit in child- 
hood, are absolutely unhappy when they 
must exhibit themselves before a numerous 
assemblage of new faces. They are alarmed 
and distressed when spoken to, or obliged to 
make the most common movement; and it 
is ten to one but some absurdity puts their 
friends out of countenance. Yet so mighty 
is the power of custom, that they who min- 
gle frequently with their fellow-creatures, 
however superior in station, age, or ability, 
are as little affected by their presence, as by 
the daily sight of a gallery of portraits. But 
we are not to rest in a mere mechanical set of 
formalities, or ceremonies A young person 
may be well bred, and neither attractive nor 
interesting; amenity of manners to be real- 
ly engaging, must proceed from candour 
and sweetness of disposition; from sensibili- 
ty and passions so p ised and regulated as 
to make all di^e allowance for the rights 
of others; for without these emanations of 
mind, exterior polish ha? no powerful charm. 
Selfish, vain, or irra^cible enotions cannot 
be wholly disguised by the glare of fashion- 
able graces; and where there is a constant 
effort to conceal bad oassions, that discrimin- 
ating acuteness which, at one glance, com- 



152 

prehends the exact point of respect, or 
condescension, will be a tardy acquisi- 
tion. The young person who desires 
no more attention than he can justly 
claim, and who has a well grounded self- 
approbation, will take his place in com- 
pany with modest, but dignified propriety, 
equally remote from presumption or fawn- 
ing — bat the ungoverned spirit appearing 
through the varnish of artificial suavity will 
often excite disgust and displeasure. 

Though conversation not very edifying 
may take place in the . drawing-room, the 
same perversion haunts the nursery, with 
this addition that the parent does not hear, 
and cannot therefore counteract it. 

All who address themselves to youth 
should conscientiously abstain from exciting 
any idea, that ought not to influence the 
subsequent conduct This infallible rule 
would prevent encomiums on the beauty, 
sprightliness, or elegance of a little creature 
Who, perhaps, till that ill-fated moment, had 
been carefully preserved from temptations 
which might lead to self-conceit. Gentle- 
men also from true humanity should re- 
fram from making a feigned love to pretty 
little puppets, to trifle away a short space of 
time, but which leaves traces in the active 
imagination sadly unfavourable to circum- 
spection in advancing years. 



153 

Mothers cannot always prevent these 
follies, but they must be very guarded with 
respect to their own intimations, lest they 
should enkindle a desire for finery and for 
admiration, or substitue the impulse of pas* 
sion for the guidance of reason. Whoever 
would induce a child to personal attention, 
let her urge plain facts — that stooping is 
prejudicial to health, that careless walking 
distorts the joints and makes the limbs less 
serviceable, that neatness in dress is the ex- 
ternal sign of mental purity and harmony; 
that care of the teeth will keep them sound, 
and that covering the face against the effects 
of the dazzling sun-beams, protects the sight. 
When motives perfective of virtue cannot 
be supplied, we must at least give such as 
do not oppose her interests; but to promise 
an admirer, a husband, a fine trinket, or 
fruit, or sweatmeats, as the reward of good 
conduct, is to sink all the better feelings in 
frivolity. 



ILL CONSEQUENCES OF AUSTERITY AND 
RIGOUR. 

INDEPENDENCE of mind is a qua- 
lity of the highest and most just repute 
among mankind; and it is indeed the source, 
the guardian, and the stay of veracity, of 



154 

consistency, and of every grace that can 
elevate sentiment or sustain exertion. This 
erect principle, attempered with modesty in 
early years, is a sure presage of wisdom and 
goodness throughout lite. A discerning eye 
will soon distinguish between it, and the ef- 
frontery of a ooid ill-tempered child, who 
may be quite unconcerned in his address, 
though devoid of that amiable stability 
which is founded on a clear perception of 
the line of duty, and a steady purpose in 
pursuing it. But nobleness of spirit is not 
to be expected when infancy has been fet- 
tered and crushed by severe treatment, 
which invariably produces servile and equi- 
vocal conduct. According to the code of 
nursery laws, to give trouble is the greatest 
of crimes, and the next in turpitude is to fal- 
sify or impose. Yet this same inflexible as- 
sertor of truth governs her charge by innu- 
merable ill-disguised deceptions, w r hich he 
soon suspects, finds out, and will certainly 
try to imitate and countermine. Nor will 
repeated punishments outweigh the influ- 
ence of example. No impression short of 
moral principles can establish integrity; 
and fear is destructive of that self-determin- 
ed rectitude which ought to be nurtured with 
the most anxious care. It is unreasonable 
to look for pure and generous motives, 
whilst all Strength of mind is spent in oppo 






155 

sing endurance to what, in the sufferers 
opinion at least, is cruelty; and the mind 
wound up to high resentment feels more 
distress than guilt. We have never seen an 
infant lavishing caresses on his nurse, parti- 
cularly attentive to keep his clothes clean, 
and astonishingly well bred, but it has re- 
called feelings with which we have beheld 
the unnatural performances of animals train- 
ed to divert the thoughtless populace. 

When the course of discipline which led 
to these antic evolutions is remembered, 
pity and horror succeed admiration. "What!" 
will a fine lady exclaim, " shall the nurse 
allow my boy to rumple, and soil, and tear 
his dress? Am I to be shocked by his sa- 
vage or sheepish aukwai dness? He fawns 
upon his nurse, because she loves him dear- 
ly, and is very good." We would entreat 
her to believe a person who can have no in- 
terest in deceiving her, that the simplicity 
of little ones who have been treated with 
gentleness, and never taught to assume, or 
to hide any feeling, will not admit of very 
strong expressions of fondness, unless du- 
ring the transcient effusion of joy, or thank- 
fulness for some gratification If a nurse, by 
mild authority, has worked upon her charge 
to be prematurely careful and polite, he will 
not be so familiar as almost to stifle her 
with embraces. When a child behaves s<x 



156 

he is acting a part which has been painfully 
imposed on him, and he supports it through 
terror. Were the evil to end here, it might 
be tolerable, though we think it highly cri- 
minal in a mother to permit her child to un- 
dergo the least hardship which she can pre- 
vent; but how enormous is the barbarity 
and the guilt when we add to present dis- 
comfort its consequences in giving habits of 
dissimulation. 

Even faithful and affectionate domestics 
may treat children harshly. They were 
themselves instructedln these methods, and 
Sol oman hath said, "he that spareth the rod 
hatefh the child" To this axiom many nur- 
sery maids pay the most strict obedience, 
and no argument can convince them that 
they can exceed in these proofs of regard. 
Nothing will prevent it but having the nur- 
sery so near as that sounds transmitted from 
thence shall reach the auditory nerves of 
their natural protectors 

A lady of high rank and distinguished 
talents, now living, could bear testimony of 
her own sufierings, during six years, from a 
servant whose respectable character was ne- 
ver called in question, but her zeal to save 
herself trouble, by making the young ladies 
faultless, induced her to inflict severe correc- 
tion when sent out with them to walk, and 
terror prevented them from complaining 



157 

until it was accidentally divulged: nor is 
this a singular instance. The mother, or 
the faithful governess, must be very vigilant 
to prevent oppression or deception, both of 
which will always augment the child's im- 
becility When the temper is soured by 
harsh treatment, and the heart perplexed by 
discovering or suspecting that the attendant 
governs by artifice, very fatal perversion 
must ensue We hope few mothers will 
feel this censure applicable to their own 
management; if so, they have great cause 
for repentance, because they have been 
teaching the most degrading of vices to their 
offspring. Let her who is conscious she has 
cheated, or rather attempted to cheat her 
children into obedience, resolve to do so no 
more. She may assure herself that they 
will see through her devices; and unless she 
desists, she will render them insincere, and 
perhaps dishonest. There is no need of 
mummery in the treatment of infants, for it 
never succeeds. We may engage their own 
feelings, and by reason' strive to correct foi- 
bles, and incline them to self-denials as free 
agents, by showing them that it is all for 
their own advantage. A peremptory com- 
mand may be expressed without passion, 
and we may suddenly check a dangerous at- 
tempt without violence. It is very perni- 
cious to view all foibles and offences in the 
o 



158 

worst light, or to be continually chiding,—, 
, Trivial faults are to be noticed merely by 
advising the child to beware of the "diminu- 
tive chains of habit;" and be it remembered, 
that moderation and delicacy are peculiarly 
necessary in the treatment of the most richly 
gifted minds. The susceptibility which, un- 
der mild restraints and uniform vigilance, 
will strongly attach itself to all that is lovely 
and laudable, is also prone to vicious exces- 
ses on the one hand, and cannot bear dis- 
couraging restrictions on the other. We 
must, therefore, take care, when we set our- 
selves to suppress one evil, not to give rise to 
another, by introducing slavish dread, and 
bringing integrity to a test too severe; that 
we do not deprive the timid of the little 
energy they possess, or urge the bold to 
indifference, perhaps to desperation, by 
rendering them insensible to reproof, an ex- 
treme which has often made rogues and 
dunces when the misjudging instructor was 
full of fiery zeal for morality and erudition. 
Like all the grown up sons and daughters of 
Adam, those in early life are the sport of 
many irregular desires, which they must be 
aided to resist and to subdue; but with these 
cogent injunctions, we must mingle the su- 
perior force of reason, even in infancy, not 
only to give a habit of attention to the 
"voice within, 5 ' but as the understanding and 



159 
the feelings of right and wrong are strength 
ened by daily opportunities, to call them in- 
to exercise. 

Even where the impulse of fear is most 
decisive, it is but momentary; for as it im- 
plants no durable conviction, and no moral 
principle, the subjects of terror run into licen- 
tiousness whenever their awful superior is 
absent. It is even proverbial that children 
who have been accustomed to harsh treat- 
ment, when absent from their parents, are 
"like birds out of a cage;" whilst those who 
have never been compelled to renounce, or 
to disguise their sentiments; have no propen- 
sity to disingenuous or inconsistent beha- 
viour. A confession wrung from the heart 
of a father on being informed that one of his 
daughters had made a marriage below the 
dignity of her family, has been often recollect* 
ed by us with a firm resolution to shun his 
error — "This is the consequence of my own 
severity, and I may expect all my girls to 
deceive me — though they have been always 
under my roof, they are strangers to me — I 
know only their faces—for they could hard- 
ly speak plain when stern austerity filled 
their little bosoms with fear, and taught them 
to hide every wish from their mother and 
me. Even now, when we would induce 
them to be free with us, they cannot whol- 
ly overcome early impressions, and I be- 



160 

lieve they appear to us, and to others, in \ery 
different characters." 

When young creatures are driven to craf- 
ty concealments, the foundation of every 
virtue must be sapped and destroyed. The 
natural abhorrence of blame and dread of 
punishment being very powerful in the mind 
of a child, we must take special care not to 
oppose these irresistible feelings to the prin- 
ciples of \eracity. Truth is riot only the 
basis of all good qualities, but the shield 
from inconveniences and dangers Where 
there is nothing to hide, nothing to find out, 
we escape from inni merable faults and in- 
quietudes in domestic life. The alliance and 
frankness of young people who are on easy 
terms with their parents, dispose them to 
seek advice in every difficulty, and they are 
consequently warned to avoid many entan- 
glements. 

Another great disadvantage attending se- 
vere measures is, that parents involuntarily 
trust to the effects of chastisements, and are 
deficient in that uniform superintendance 
and mild restraint which alone can form the 
habits of infancy: so that upon the whole, 
children who are at times subjected to vio- 
lence, obtain more pernicious indulgences, 
and take more d ingerous liberties than these 
who are moderately curbed and gently in- 
structed. The keen temper that transports 



161 

to harsh extremes is often accompanied by 
intense affections, and when anger has sub- 
sided, the father or mother is sorry for hav- 
ing gone so far; too much license succeeds, 
tili another fault originating, perhaps, in pa- 
rental negligence, draws upon the child ano- 
ther unprofitable punishment. Many ex- 
cellent characters have been formed under 
severe discipline both at home and at school; 
but minds happily constituted will overcome 
every obstacle unless exposed to the most 
depraved example, and their own native 
powers, at a future period, will enable them 
to rectify the errors of education: but why 
thus invade the peace, and hazard the integ- 
rity of a child, when every valuable end may 
be accomplished by kind and encouraging 
treatment. 

These means, corroborated by assiduous 
instruction, are infallible; but rules of con ■ 
duct, or studies enforced by the rod, often 
prove abortive; for the spirit of contradiction, 
so prevalent in children who have been long 
irritated by harsh controul, induces them to 
seize the first opportunity to act in opposi- 
tion, regardless of consequences. We have 
heard parents defend their rigorous manage- 
ment as tending to fortify the spirit against 
unavoidable trials through life; but inspired 
wisdom, common sense, and common he- 
o 2 



162 

nesty forbid us to do evil that good may re- 
sult from it. 

The hardness of a heart accustomed to 
rough treatment can never sustain other suf- 
ferings with resolution so firm, or resigna- 
tion so sincere, as religious fortitude bestows. 
Where the Most High sees fit to make tri- 
al of the patience of his creatures, we know 
that "from seeming evil he is still educing 
good, 5 ' but we are not to arrogate to our- 
selves these "attributes divine;" we are hum- 
bly to follow, but never to assume, the lead 
in any dispensation of Providence. Our 
plain path of duty is to make all under our 
influence as happy as may be compatible 
with the regulation of their propensities, and 
the improvement of their time; still strength- 
ening them to bear all vicissitudes by de- 
vout confidence and entire submission to 
unerring goodness. 



PENALTIES CALCULATED FOR PERMA- 
NENT EFFECTS. 

IT is a lamentable consequence* of severe 
treatment that the spirit gains force to dut- 
brave Bufferings, and past inflictions appear- 
ing little regarded, they are again and again 
augmented Depriving a child of an hour 
>f amusement, of a walk, or a visit, when re- 



163 

presented as a disgrace, will hare more per- 
manent efficacy than agitating and inflaming 
violence, hardly more degrading to the sub- 
ject, than to the agent. A little reflection 
upon our own early feelings will assist us in 
influencing those of our children, and lead 
us to make allowance for puerile incapacity . 
We have never been able to make ourselves 
just such as we wish to be, and shall we 
require an infant to surpass us in exertion 
and self-command? YVe cannot subdue 
our passions, or Fortify ourselves against 
weaknesses instantly, nor should we expect 
a child to be speedily successful, however 
willing to refrain, or to act according to our 
requisitions. By demanding too much, we 
shall disgust, or discourage him from per- 
forming what he might find practicable un- 
der n ore cheering influence. Rigorous 
treatment not only creates aversion to stu- 
dy, but also to persons for whom our love, 
or respect, might induce strong incitements 
to laudable conduct; and unless a child be 
truly sorry for doing amiss the intention of 
punishment is defeated. We do net al- 
ways sufficiently distinguish between the 
anguish of bodily suffering and heartfelt 
compunction; nor is >t invariably consider- 
ed, that to compel children to express that 
penitence which they do not feel, may utter- 
ly annihilate the principle of veracity — con 



164 

viction can never be extorted, and the dread 
of reiterated punishment will not deter the 
hardy, or artful youth from giving way to 
corrupt inclinations, when the means are pre- 
sented Fear is a passion generally at variance 
with moral bentiments, or too overwhelming 
to be resisted by them, and it prompts chil- 
dren not so much to avoid faults, as to elude 
detection, by base subterfuges, that still 
more incurably deprave the heart 

Blessed be liod, the savage and perni- 
cious frequency of chastisement has given 
way to more rational management in the re- 
fined and enlightened classes of society: but 
as it still prevails in the nursery, we feel our- 
selves called upon, not only by humanity, 
bui by unfeigned earnestness in the cause 
of genuine morality, to apprise the inexperi- 
enced mother of the fatal consequences that 
may ensue from making fear the ruling prin- 
ciple of conduct. W hen debasing force snail 
b exchanged for maternal attention, and the 
of the rod forbidden in the government 
of infants, we may then hail the wide em- 
pire of truth, candour, and innate dignity. 
Much of the ill temper, duplicity and ab- 
ject meanness that disgusts us in the world, 
lui> InvMiue habitual through irritation and 
{par before the mind could distinguish good 
from evii. 

Jum ,s these p ges were ready for the 
press we met with Mr. Knox's essays, and 



165 

by the advice of a literary correspondent^ 
we insert the following extract from the 
31st page of the 3d volume, as a proof that 
not only feminine weakness, but the mas- 
culine wisdom of a very superior mind con- 
demns severity. " The spirits urder be- 
nign management contract a milkiness and 
learn to flow cheerily in their smooth and 
yielding channels; while, on the contrary, if 
the young mind isteazed. fretted, » r neglect-. 
ed, the passages of the spirits become rug- 
ged, abrupt, exasperated; and the whole ner- 
vous system seems to acquire an excessive 
irritability. The ill treatment of children 
makes them not only wretched at the time, 
but wretched for life; tearing the fine con- 
texture of their nerves, and, roughening, by 
example and by some secret and internal in- 
fluence, the very constitution of their tern- 
pers. 1 ' 

But though harsh usage is inimical to 
sweetness and ingenuousness of disposition; 
to self respect and to every amiable quality, 
the mischiefs arising from excessive license 
are not less formidable. Every fault and 
foible must be watchfully discovered, re- 
pressed, and counteracted. Fond affection 
seeks to ascertain the very first symptoms of 
bodily disease, and leaves no means untried 
to retard its progress, and to expel every 
taint from the constitution. Diseases of the 



166 

uiind require to be traced out with equal vi- 
gilance, and means to cure them must be re- 
sulted to with the same persevering solicitude. 
Tne tyranny of any passion unfits the mind 
for enjoyment, as certainly as the paroxysms 
of an inflammatory distemper disable the 
body from gay activity, or comfortable rest 
We must, therefore, spare no pains to con- 
vince our pupil that amendment is necessary 
to his happiness, and w hen we can excite his 
voluntary efforts, reformation will certainly 
be accomplished. To overcome pertinacity 
by betraying angry vehemence, is a fruitless 
attempt, as the child's pride is excited to re- 
sistance; but by calmly telling him that he 
shall have time to reflect on the injury done 
to himself, and by keeping him seated in 
our sight, his refractory spiiit will not long 
continue. This method is short, simple and 
easy, nor can the most tender parent object 
to it. Many amiable persons blame them- 
selves for want of firmness to be severe, and 
knowing no adequate medium, they wink at 
faults, till they become almost incurable — 
Little ones contract a troublesome disposi- 
tion, either from having their temper spoiled, 
and every generous feeling paralized by se- 
verity, or from the fault of the parents, who 
humanely averse to such extremes, have not 
devised anyotherfortheir subjugation. Ashort 
time of bilence, or confinement. ?oon brings 



16T 

them to order; but they must never be sent 
out of our view. It exposes them to acci- 
dents in infancy; and when of age to learn a 
task, they either fall asleep, or waste their time 
in play which is anew transgression. They 
should be guarded against every opportunity 
to commit faults, more anxiously than from 
bodily harm, as every offence diminishes 
repugnance to evil. Incases of peculiar enor- 
mity, which, with children carefully instruct- 
ed, will hardly occur, debarring them from 
conversation, and giving their meals at a 
separate table, though in our presence, will 
make the penalty severe and impressive to 
a high degree. 

The child may be also required to com- 
mit to memory some pious and moral les- 
son suitable to his circumstances. This sen- 
tence must be pronounced with solemn de- 
liberation and evident regret; for it will be 
found that parental grief has more lasting 
effects than indignation, invective, and re- 
proaches. The humiliation which always 
follows the detection of a crime, disposes 
the delinquent to hear with submissive ear- 
nestness a concise, plain and compassionate 
admonition; and it conveys a touching 
sense of misbehaviour to give reproof in the 
most secret manner, when the nature of a 
fault allow r s it. 

We are very solicitous to frame our 
maxims to meet every exigence, though we 



168 

sincerely hope that many of the cases sup 
posed possiole are very rare. We have 
known the sarcastick mother of a family 
who made butts of her own children, and 
often made them appear ridiculous by her 
satirical humour. It is easy to find occa- 
sion to deride an inexperienced creature, 
who dare neither retort, nor seem to take 
offence. If this lady had considered the fa- 
tal effects of wounding sensibility, or of 
hardening the bronze of effrontery, and the 
cruelty and meanness of displaying her own 
wit at the expense of unresisting innocence, 
she would certainly have restrained it. 
Children should not be rebuked or af- 
fronted before strangers It exasperates the 
bold, and stupifiesthe timid — a vivid feeling 
of shame is one of the most powerful re- 
straints on the young mind, but frequent 
public reproof will soon impair it. Spoiling 
clothes, or losing small articles of dress, is 
often treated as a heinous transgression; but 
it confounds guilt and folly to punish each 
offence alike. The inconvenience occasion- 
ed by neglect is a sufficient penalty, and 
tlv.it natural consequence, and no other 
should be allowed to operate as a caution to 
be more attentive in future. 



lay 



BAD HABITS. 



HABITS which have taken root and 
have been diverging into complicated evil? 
for several years, will not admit of an im- 
mediate cure; and if we give way to fretful 
anxiety, instead of waiting for the gradual 
operation of the child's better reason, quick- 
ened by careful instruction, we shall proba- 
bly dishearten him from a task, which, al- 
ways irksome, mwst at times demand the 
most painful sacrifices. We must inspire 
him with the wish and hope of reformation, 
and enlighten his understanding, that he 
may have a just perception of the induce- 
ments to correct his faults; and though he 
cannot all at once effect it, the change in his 
disposition will be progressive and perma- 
nent. 

Lying is an odious vice — so odious and 
detestable, that a creature who could have a 
just view of its turpitude would willingly 
undergo the most excruciating remedy; but 
as well might we expect by farther stretch- 
ing, to contract and to brace the sinews of a 
Strained limb, as attempt, by pain and terror, 
to invigorate the feeble or too sensitive 
mind that has recourse to falsehood for the 
purpose of concealing transgression. Let 
the penalty for faults excite less dread, and 



170 

honest confession will be practicable. It is 
only by the absence of powerful tempta- 
tions to offend agairit truth, that veracity 
can be made habitual to timid infancy, or 
that due regard to it can be regained when 
the domination of fear has introduced cus- 
tomary deception. 

But all such transgressions must be the 
subject of pointed animadversion in a few 
forcible words, explaining not only the sin, 
but the folly of an offence which, criminal 
in itself, deprives the culprit of our confi- 
dence, debases his character, destroys self- 
respect, and involves him in many falsehoods 
to hide one fault, which, if candidly owned, 
would have been forgiven. 

In some instances, a young creature can 
hardly extricate himself from his entangle- 
ments without a total change of manage- 
ment; and he should be sent for a time 
where the overwhelming influence of fear 
may be forgotten, and a steady but gentle 
authority should be employed to correct his 
errors. When he returns to his parents, 
they may continue the treatment best calcu- 
lated to impress on his mind the importance 
of veracity, and of every voluntary virtue. 

All bad habits are owing to faulty edu- 
cation, and arc therefore a subject of self- 
reproachtcr the superintendent, who, through 
istice, oyght to make the labour of reform* 



171 

ation easy by every assistance and en- 
couragement he can afford. Incongruity of 
character, whether it proceed from weakness, 
caprice, or violent passions, is the greatest of 
misfortunes, and the cure would generally 
keep pace with the good intention of the 
instructor, if the child was convinced that 
it is not a proud and despotic spirit that 
seeks to controul him, but an affectionate 
friend who lays him under some restraints 
to preserve him from greater evils. He 
must be informed clearly and unequivocal- 
ly how his fault may be amended; and not 
one word should be uttered that is not preg- 
nant with self evident truths suited to his 
limited capacity. We must also beware 
not to excite great anxiety or fear, which 
would deprive him of presence of mind to 
guard against the fault he is required to 
avoid. 

Very unamiable eccentricity is some- 
times tolerated in the hope that an "odd 
creature" must be singularly clever; but 
harsh, unbending, or erratic lines are not es- 
sential features of a powerful mind, and too 
much license is as unfavourable to improve- 
ment as severe coercion. We cannot su 
perinduce, though we may frustrate, the 
choice gifts of nature, by giving way to bad 
propensities; and foibles may be checked 
without diminishing the native fire or deli 



172 

cate acuteness of sublime genius. If the 
child feels that all his passions are indulged, 
he will soon despise authority both parental 
and moral, and if reasonable liberty be de- 
nied, the powers of his mind in that unna- 
tural state will languish and decay. When 
he regards his nearest relatives as oppressors, 
he becomes deceitful and perfidious in self- 
defence, and can never, perhaps, regain in- 
tegrity. The daily actions in which chil- 
dren are conversant produce an effect on 
their dispositions, and if either the tyrants 
or the slave of their instructors, the due pre- 
ponderance of willing obedience, or rational 
reliance on their own judgment is impossi- 
ble. 



STUDIES, EMPLOYMENTS, AND ACCOM- 
PLISHMENTS. 

IF a parent should be unacquainted with 
the principles and duties of tuition, great in- 
convenience must occasionally arise from 
disappointment in procuring a governess, or 
through her ill health or capacity: and osten- 
tatious hustle or severity may be mistaken 
lor attention, or indolence for good nature. 
A mother's ability to instruct, or to superin- 
tend, \> ever advantageous, but in a remote 
residence it may be indispensable* Ami ' < 



173 

even can < w breathe an enlivening spirit'' into 
all the lessons received from a teacher. 

By giving complete education to the eld- 
est daughter, a large family may be made 
highly accomplished at a moderate expense. 
A sweet sensible girl will double her diligence 
to become capable of benefiting her sisters, 
and animated by affection, she will not find 
such exertions laborious. 

Dancing ought to be attempted in infancy 
whilst the joints are flexible, and time of 
less importance. The utmost an ordinary 
master can do, is to bring the child to the 
proper use of her feet, which might be 
taught at home, w T ith the certain acquisition 
of easy carriage and attitudes; both of which 
cannot escape being spoiled by long contin- 
uance under the direction of a person inca- 
pable either to define, or to exemplify the 
higher graces: whilst the example of an ele- 
gant female daily affords some new advan- 
tage. Dancing seems to be the department 
in education iji which mothers are most 
diffident of their own capacity for usefulness; 
but she who has been well taught herself, 
need never doubt her own ability to teach her 
little girl, when she considers that verbal in- 
structions in dancing can in no degree equal 
the effect of imitation. As soon as a child 
can move with a firm step, her walk, posi- 
tions, and carriage must be regulated so far 
*2 



174 

as to prevent uncouth or aukward motions. 
The most natural movements are always 
the most graceful, and we have only to pre- 
vent distortions. Collars, and backboards are 
dangerous, by their too close compression, 
or in case of a fall, and they seldom answer 
the purpose for which they were intended. 
They are always advantageously superseded 
by attention to infantine habits Elder child- 
ren soon learn to give gentle, conciliating, and 
seasonable hints to remind the little ones in 
regard to their carriage, and in every other 
point of propriety or duty. 

To recommend any acquirement as being 
much admired, is to make emulative vanity 
a settled principle. Diligence in the orna- 
mental parts of education should be enforced 
with the view of giving pleasure and amuse- 
ment to parents and near relations, and child- 
wn will apply to them with the same sim- 
plicity with which they learn the plainest 
branches. In every performance the most 
pure and laudable inducements are to be 
ted. 

Lessons in music ought to commence 
• u l\ . as proficiency requires so much time. 
A child will gradually learn to read music, 
by allowing her to practice on the in- 
strument, the amusement it affords will, in 
some measure, pre vent the dtqgust and 
s fttl ding first attempts in a diifi- 



175 

cult study. If she cannot have a very able 
instructor, she must at least be taught from 
lessons in which the fingering has been ac- 
curately marked; and in sitting at the instru- 
ment, holding the hands, and touching the 
keys, all bad habits must be carefully avoid- 
ed. It is not the quantity, but the quality of 
practice that improves the beginner, lor if 
compelled to continue for a longer time than 
she can command her attention, she will 
probably play incorrectly. The tin e, how- 
ever, must be increased when she can re- 
ceive some pleasure from her own perform- 
ance, and lessons ought to be selected to 
make her progress entertaining, easy and ex- 
peditious. Unless a child becapable of perse- 
verance, her attainments in music will af- 
ford no satisfaction; she will lose the super- 
ficial practice by a short interruption; but 
thorough proficiency may be regained in a 
great measure, either as a solace when old 
age precludes active amusements, or in a 
change of fortune as a pecuniary resource. 
Girls should be taught the inoculation of 
vocal notes at a very early age. If the 
voice be flexible and clear, it will acquire 
strength and variety by practice; and the 
habit of singing in private parties will give 
easy confidence; but care must be taken 
neither to pitch or swell the compass of a 
song so high as to endanger the lungb, nor 



176 

must the child sing more than a few verses 
without a long interval. A mother who 
has had good instruction may impart advan- 
tages to her girls before they be of age to 
have masters for singing 

All the advocates of female propriety 
must lament that some of our finest airs are 
set to words conveying unfavourable im- 
pressions to the young mind. This is an ef- 
fect sometimes too slightly considered. Let 
a mother ask herself, will she place the beau- 
ty of melody in competition with the pru- 
dence and delicacy of her daughter? Sure- 
ly not, she will reply. Then let her never 
permit a verse to be introduced into her col- 
lection which may excite an idea unlit to 
be acted upon in the progress of life 

Every study ought to commence with 
the least complex, and most intelligible les- 
sons. Unless the principles of drawing have 
been clearly defined and understood, lights 
and shades impossible in nature will 
be exhibited. f l herefore, if an able teach- 
er is not to be procured, to explain the 
peculiar ichnoaraphy t and the true me- 
thod of artificially representing natural ob- 
jects, to prevent bad habits the practice 
should be limited to proportion* and out- 
lines. If the pupil has gained facility aid ex- 
peitness in these mechanical perfor ailCCf, 
her progress under a scientific instructor 



177 

will be quick and delightful. Allowing 
children the fiee^use of the pencil when they 
can write legioly will lead them to perceive 
their own incapacity, to fulfil the ideas 
formed in a lively imagination, and they 
will gladly receiye the aid of a teacher. 
Painting flowers is more easily acquired 
than landscape drawing, and it is of material 
use in improving taste, and in chusing and mak- 
ing ornamental articles of dress and furniture. 
We would beseech ladies who are ambi- 
tious that their daughters should be acom- 
plished, to calculate how many years, and 
how much instruction and application are 
demanded in one single study; and if atten- 
tion be greatly divided, no more than a 
smattering in numerous branches can be ob- 
tained. Excellence in any of these will in- 
fallibly be esteemed, but shallow pretensions 
to universal acquirements generally make a 
young person affected and ridiculous, besides 
rendering her deficient in her performances. 
Music, painting, natural philosophy, sculp- 
ture, and in short every thing that can be 
undertaken by fair and delicate hands is 
now so customary, that without uncommon 
approaches to perfection, the eclat at which 
vanity so eagerly grasps is lost. No ac- 
complishment should be attempted without 
sufficient leisure and opportunity for in- 
struction and practice; and children 'should 



178 

be incited never to stop short of high attain- 
ments, preferring always those that yield 
durable advantage. The skilful musician, 
paintress, botanist, the all comprehending 
dashing girl, may be a very insignificant old 
matron or spinster, but she who in youth 
was admired as an amiaole, sensible, pru- 
dent, and useful daughter, sister, or friend, 
can never be an object of contempt. Her 
qualities encrease in value with her years — 
and if she be capable of entertaining her as- 
sociates and herself by excelling in any ele- 
gant acquirement, her perseverance will be 
amply rewarded These considerations are 
peculiarly necessary to people of moderate 
fortune. It is deplorable to see girls wast- 
ing their precious hours in embellishments 
never to be completed; or neglecting plain 
works and repairs for the sake of costly fan- 
cy-pieces, that in the fluctuation of fashion, 
are soon to be contemned as useless lum- 
ber. Wealthy pupils, and such as are in 
tended for the tuition of others, may adopt 
every new style in ephemeral needlework?; 
but we would remind all who are delibera- 
ting on apian of instruction, that life is short, 
the period for education still shorter, and 
that the employment of early years should 
have a view to the greatest possible benefit 
in future circumstances The decisive efforts 
of extraordinary genius ought no doubt to 



17'9 

be encouraged, so far as prudence may per- 
mit; but the saving made in a large family 
by expertness in making every article of ap- 
parel, and by neatness in repairing them, is 
never to be overlooked in a state of medio- 
crity — for though a girl may have affluence 
in her father's house, and make a suitable 
marriage, a numerous family will require 
the greatest economy. There is a vast dif- 
ference between care and parsimony; and 
we often find that the most frugal are the 
most liberal in acts of true charity. Young 
women may be taught management without 
meanness; and the custom of turning every 
thing to the best account, and letting no- 
thing be lost, ought to commence even in 
infancy. 

Boys are happily influenced by daily 
witnessing the industry, regularity, and at- 
tention of their mother and sisters; and by a 
conviction, that the independence their lofty 
spirit assumes can be maintained only by 
keeping within their pecuniary means, and 
by observances, which taken singly, almost 
appear too trivial to produce great effects. 
They will perceive the danger of indolence, 
or inadvertence, if we show them how a 
few stitches ot a needle, a nail, a pin, a little 
glue, or solder, too long delayed, may 

I occasion the total decay of very costly ar- 



180 

mouldered away by individual negligence 
perhaps exceed the interest of our na- 
tional debt; and if we endeavour to reckon 
how many things are perishing by careless- 
ness, it must fill us with regret and astonish- 
ment. How much ground unproductive or 
ill improved, in gardens and farms! Misma- 
nagement of live stock, of the diary, or in- 
attention to professions, business and trades, 
with the vast extent of waste lands in our 
empire, would amount to an immense reve- 
nue. 

Enthusiasm for verbal acquisitions has 
cramped the ability of many promising 
students. We admit the importance of 
learned languages; but the mind must be 
contracted if chained to one point, and few 
opportunities be presented for unfolding its 
faculties. If we neglect to strengthen the 
reasoning powers, and to infuse such know- 
ledge as may be indispensable in daily in- 
tcTcourse, the most perfect retentions of 
idioms, construction and terminations, can 
neither make a youth agreeable, nor useful 
in society. Let a portion of the day be de- 
voted to Latin and Greek, and when du- 
ring the remaining hours his intellect has 
been relieved and nourished by studies 
more level to his apprehension and eapa 
ble to create some interest and amusement. 
the pupil will return to the classics with re- 



181 

novated vigour and aptitude. An acquaint- 
ance with literature in his native tongue, if 
not formed in youtii, vill hardly be sought 
after when the business and pleasures of ma- 
turer years solicit his attention. No gentle 
man would chuse his son to be ignorant of 
geography, history, biography, natural and 
experimental philosophy, and belles letlres; 
yet if the seeds be not implanted in early 
years, the flowers and fruits of elegant science 
will never adorn or promote the eelebnty 
and -usefulness of a learned profession. It is 
by reading English books that correct dic- 
tion and elocution is to be attained; and the 
public speaker on every occasion, the divine, 
and the lawyer, are as much indebted to 
eloquence, as to erudition. Let both be cul- 
tivated by early studies, but let no one branch 
engross the time that ought to be given up to 
another. Dead and foreign languages may 
prove serviceable, but the information con- 
tained in our own is essential to the finishing 
of a genteel education, and to the business 
of life. A young man may have spent year 
after year in learning the style of Greek and 
Roman authors, and yet be unfit to contri- 
bute his share in intelligent conversation, or 
to maintain a pleasant correspondence. 

Letter- Writing deserves much greater and 
more timely attention than is commonly al- 
lowed. As soon as a child can write on 



182 

double rules of small dimension.he ought to 
commence by addressing short sentences to 
his parents, who, having marked the errors, 
are to require himself to correct them. Let- 
ter writing combines more instruction than 
any other performance. It exercises and im- 
proves the understanding, memory, and judg- 
ment, the hand-writing and orthography, 
grammar, and style of expression. A child 
who can spell dissyllables by rote, may fall 
into very foolish blunders, when he first 
transcribes the words on paper. We have 
seen them divided into several parts, each 
begun w r ith a capital letter. To write ten 
or twelve words daily, will be of more 
benefit than to learn whole columns from 
the spelling-book. 

Emulation, as it is commonly employed, 
degenerates into envy. In this, as in other 
instances, the child is sometimes not only 
ignorant of right principles, but his feelings 
are perverted by corrupt suggestions, "keep 
your clothes clean, make a nice bow, and an- 
Swer 'yes, ma'am, 5 and 'no, ma'am,' and the 
company will admire you much more than 
the rest, with red eyes and downcast looks 
after being whipped;" but if the nurse had 
not presented those vain, selfish, unfeeling 
inducements, it would suffice to say, "if you 
attend to my advice, you will be a good 
child." This susceptible moral delicacy, 



183 

which considers virtue as her own reward 
this habit of referring to self approbation for 
the recompence of good conduct, or the com- 
pensation of self-denial, being in unison with 
the higher faculties of the mind, affords a 
more constant and efficacious stimulus than 
the low and variable influence of emulation 
and rivalship. It tends directly to counteract 
the avocations that call off a child's attention 
from his studies, or render themburthensome; 
and though the sense of moral duty be very 
feeble in the heart of a little child, if cherish- 
ed with urbanity and attention, its force will 
be daily augmented. 

The mode of education best adapted for 
producing a willing attention to study, would 
be one of the most valuable benefits ever 
bestowed on the human species. Perhaps, 
if new acquisitions could be made to yield 
the delicious feeling of self-complacency, 
without giving birth to self conceit, children 
would be less averse to combat their natural 
indolence, or restless vivacity. "You must 
give up some ease, and some amusement. 
my dear, to procure future enjoyments, and 
to save you from great evils. Observe the 
difference between a well educated, and. an 
ignorant person. In infancy both were the 
same. The gentleman owes his superiority 
entirely to those books, to which you apply 
with reluctance. You are now to chusc. 



J84 

whether you are to sink to the state of the 
po r man, or to raise yourself gradually to 
the level of him whom you see respected for 
knowledge, and the power of doing good to 
others and to himself." Education should 
always be made to appear not as an arbitra- 
ry task, but as necessary to the economy and 
enjoyment of life, and to prepare the child 
for the businebs and vocations of manhood. 



PRECAUTIONS AGAINST VICE & FOLLIES. 

TO guard against vice and folly, and to 
form and to establish moral habits, should 
be the paramount tendency of all precepts 
and lessons. Since even in a sublunary state 
the most exquisite bliss, or the most pungent 
anguish results from mental principles and 
propensities. Education to be duly com- 
prehensive, is to render the pupil not only 
intelligent and accomplished, but wiser and 
more nappy. When we would adjust a plan 
for the instruction of our children, let us 
pause to enquire of what avail are the gifts 
of nature or of fortune, or the fruits of study 
or the \ oice of tame or admiration, if the in- 
dividual he often a stranger to self-enjoy- 
ment Possessions and immunities are in- 
sufficient to purchase contentment or toex 
i*lude chagriss; and youtlij health, opulence 



285 

brilliant talents, and spacious merits may 
frequently leave their possessor the prey of 
tumultuous appetites, or of the sadness and 
irritation of morbid sensibility. Uncontroll- 
ed appetites and indulged foibles, are the 
cause of disquietudes far exceeding the real 
miseries of life. Afflictions or privations may 
be supported with pious submission or cheer- 
ful equanimity, but the extremes of thought- 
less levity, or of capricious dejection, un- 
hinge the mind, and can only be rectified by 
self-controul; an attainment which must be 
the effect of early habits. It is no overstrain- 
ed refinement to affirm that the most intol- 
erable sufferings of human nature arise from 
deficiency in this respect Happiness is a 
mental feeling; and its intenseness and dura- 
bility depend on the power we have gained 
over our own inclinations, and on the purity, 
vigour, and elevation of those sentiments 
that direct our conduct 

No extrinsic advantage, no erudite, or 
elegant acquisition is absolutely essential 
to our welfare, and they confer only partial 
good; but moral wisdom is in itselfthe science 
and vital essence of happiness. It is the only 
source of inward comfort and peace; and it 
promotes our interest in the world, by rais- 
ing our character and qualifying and dispo- 
sing us for social duties* If this be a just 
representation, how egregious is the error to 
a 2 



186 

indulge, or negligently to weigh and harms 
nize the jarring passions of early age, which 
in a very few years may become almost in- 
superably confirmed. 

Every vice and folly we would condemn 
in the youth, or grown girl, must be guard- 
ed against in childhood, and even in infan- 
cy. The pride and tenaciousness of an after 
period will resist endeavours to correct 
faults that might have been prevented or 
soon amended by timely care. In adoles- 
cence, untutored young people claim so 
much liberty to themselves, and have so 
little self command, that as their own prin- 
ciples, habits, and understanding do not re- 
strain them, so parental advice, or inhibition 
will have little efficacy. 

A child who has been permitted to take his 
Maker's name in vainwill employ these shock- 
ing expletives in manhood. They aye, indeed, 
words shocking to piety, to good manners 
and good sense; and most deplorable, if consi- 
dered as the outrages of a worm against Om- 
nipotence. If the common swearer believes in 
God, hen a madman to insult a power 
that can crush him in a moment; and if he 
doubts, what security is there against the 
commission of any crime where temptation 
and the hope of impunity are presented? 
Children accustomed to t ilk at random 
he nui y. or who, by often listening to, 



187 

or reading marvellous stories, have the;* 
imagination overheated, must be very care- 
fully watched; and if any fiction shall be 
given as a fact, it must be treated with point- 
ed ridicule, till the inventor acutely feeis the 
contempt he has incurred. We are then 
calmly and seriously to turn his attention to 
the sin he has committed, but let it be re- 
membered that supernumerary words only 
weaken the effect of an exhortation. 

Some young creatures betray a wretched 
covetousness, which, if not carefully correct- 
ed, will end in dishonest practices. Gifts of 
money at their own disposal aggravate this 
evil. Children should receive these favours 
only from their parents; and under their di- 
rection it is certainly advantageous to be ac- 
customed to make purchases, and to have a 

general idea of their own expenses 

We have seen infants of promising abilities 
very ready to take undue liberty with the 
property of others; but by diligent instruc- 
tion, and guarding them from temptations 
and opportunity, till their principles and ha- 
bits were formed, they grew up with a just 
ai d nrm adherence to truth and honour. 

Parents vainly flatter themselves if they 
hope that plentiful necessaries and indul- 
gence in luxuries will effectually prevent in- 
■fantii e avidity Indigence is a severe test of 
honesty, but abundance can produce no vir- 



188 

tue that has not been inculcated on proper 
motives. Instances of fraudulent practice- 
in young men, and of females pilfering from 
shops, neither of whom could plead poverty 
in extenuation, may alarm parental tender- 
ness to find out and to suppress the first 
signs of this disgraceful propensity. From 
their earliest years the most scrupulous 
integrity, liberality, fair dealing, and hon 
our, must be enjoined in all transactions. 
Far from indulging a smile at any instance 
of selfish dexterity, the children must see 
it is viewed with horror and detestation; 
and we may frequently take occasion 
to show them that deceit is the resource of 
cowardly and contemptible animals even in 
the lower creation. 

Whatever is spoken of in terms of admi- 
ration in the parlour, ihe nursery or ser- 
vants'' hull, especially if it shall coincide 
with his passions, must give a strong bias to 
a b m 's mind. He should therefore be kept 
carefully from improper associates, and 
glow tlemen ought to refrain from 

ni Dli j in his hearing, any juvenile ex- 
p] m h th ) cannot recommend far 
iim utinn. 'I be shield of heartfelt reference 
[ irii iiu must be prepared at this age, toin- 
tcrpo* etween the youth k ju>t springing in- 
to mar, hood." a,. d th<-alliirem< nt * of vice, and 
that perhaps when he is tar removed irom 



189 

friendly admonitions. The cares of a parent 
must be " employed in long and comprehen- 
sive views," adapted not only to circumstan- 
ces immediately existing, but to ail dangers 
that " come within the scope of probabili- 
ty." All companions, and all books that 
have a tendency to vitiate the heart must be 
excluded; and we must impress his imagina- 
tion, and convince his judgment, by such 
representations oi the consequences of im^ 
morality as may fill his mind with disgust 
and horror. 

The miseries of a gamester, depicted in all 
its gradations towards ruin and despair, might 
so affect a boy's mind as to countervail temp- 
tations to hazard a large stake. Gambling 
should never be mentioned in his hearing 
without testifying alarm and abhorrence; 
adding that it demands deeper and more 
laborious study than what is necessary to 
obtain honourable independence, perhaps 
eminence in a liberal profession. VVe should 
avail ourselves of every occasion to fix in 
young minds, this certain truth, that many 
painful toils and sacrifices are annexed to 
vice, and that it affords far less enjoyment 
than is to be found in virtuous industry and 
prudent self-denial. 

There is another vice more common, and 
yet more fatal than a vicious indulgence in 
cards and dice, and which, alas! is known 



190 

to tyrannize over strong and worthy minds. 
The gambler may be.reclaimeo with his in- 
tellect and constistution unimpaired; but 
the slave of inebriety destroys both. Me 
sins indeed against himself only, but it is a 
deadly sin. Yet a fond mother will initiate 
her son in excess to contribute to the diver- 
sion of a riotous company. She ought rather 
to prepossess him with the utmost repug- 
nance to a failing which is always the effect 
of custom. The dread of ridicule, and a 
wish to be accommodating, compels the strip- 
ling to join in draughts which are at first 
distasteful, but soon become agreeable, and 
at length necessary; and can a mother sanc- 
tion the first enticement to this vice? 

If, by suppressing "things ungrateful to 
the feelings," their attendant evils might be 
prevented, the monitor of inexperience 
might be spared many very painful and dis- 
agreeable offices. In treading on tender 
ground we may benefit the reader, but we 
hazard her displeasure if we revert to a point 
in which she is conscious of blame. Will 
she pardon us for adding, that the indignant 
flush that mantles on her check should be 
regarded as a warning to search out and to 
couvct the error. We would probe this se- 
cret corruption, not to give pain, but to de- 
liver her from its fatal effects; and howevee 



191 

our skill may be doubted, we hope our 
tenderness will never be calleu in question. 
In no instance docs early mismanagement 

give rise to evils so dire, so irreparable, as 
from over-indulgence of a volatile temper. 
Gaiety and mirth are so attractive, that 
young people affect to sparkle by sprightly 
sallies, if they cannot dazzle by confisca- 
tions of genius, wit and fancy. But in che- 
rishing a cheerful spirit, we must never lose 
sight of establishing habitual circumspection. 
Pare principle engrafted on a sound under- 
standing, from the lirst capacity For instruc- 
tion, will sufficiently moderate the most ex- 
uberant vivacity, and self-examination, night- 
ly reviewing thoughts, words, and actions, 
whilst fresh in a girl's recollection, will lead 
her to check many foibles, ere they are able 
to degrade her character, or to afflict her pa- 
rents. If she lias deviated from propriety, 
it will amount to a reproof if her mother 
shall say. "search your own heart, my dear. 
for this or that part particular/- Conscience 
thus aroused, will pointedly remonstrate, 
and her casiigations are more effectual than 
reproaches, or vigilance, that often fail in af- 
fecting the feelings, convincing the reason or 
controlling the manners. If some pan of 
her conduct must be censured, a mild but 
firm aspect in setting forth the offence will 
show, that it is her own danger which ; « 



192 

chiefly considered. It is impossible to ima- 
gine more mortifying agony of soul, than 
the dilemma of a mother who feels that to 
impute levity to her offspring is a subject of 
extreme delicacy, yet dares not overlook 
dubious behaviour, lest bolder freedoms 
should lead to worse consequences 

We must, in early infancy, provide against 
these disquiets, by teaching a lively and ex- 
plicit distinction between right and wrong, 
and by keeping all bad example at a dis- 
tance. A giddy playful hoiden is a very 
improper attendant for girls. Seeing her 
romp with the footman diverts them— they 
take the same liberty with their juvenile 
beaux, and habits are progressive. These 
are considerations never to be left to chance; 
nor^hould we permit associates of their own 
age with our own daughters, unless we 
know that they are incapable to mislead 
them. Many little ones have unhappily 
copied from the inconsiderate votaries of fa- 
shion whom they have regarded with admi- 
ration. In short, if| tits would recollect 
how much easier it i> to instil principles 
than to modify manners, many wretched 
marriages, blemished reputations, and acti- 
ng hearts, might be prevented. There are 
f< a jprlfi who would not endeavour to shun 
disasters bo frightful, if their instructors, in- 
tead of employing harsh reproof, would 



193 

have recourse to impressive arguments. A 
rattling young creature may be restrained, 
but she will not be amended by severity. 
She will dissemble in our presence, but as 
soon as she can escape, she will eagerly give 
way to her propensity. Her cure depends 
on showing her real disposition. And those 
friends to whom it is known, will, with 
good humoured steadiness, point out the 
dreadful consequences to which she exposes 
herself. 

At that critical age, ere the mind has firm- 
ness to abide by its own convictions, to 
bring young females into promiscuous com- 
pany at balls, is a hazardous experiment. — 
Where admittance can be cheaply purchas- 
ed, there may be equivocal characters who 
would proudly make themselves conspicu- 
ous in attention to beauty, dignity, and ele- 
gance; and good nature may be misinter 
preted as affording encouragement. To 
|very young persons there is a delusion in 
ipublic exhibitions which is apt to cause a 
temporary oblivion of sage maxims: but in 
ihe concert hall, the theatre, and all places 
:>f sedentary amusement, the inexperienced 
air is stationary under the immediate care 
!)f her chaperon. If a matron would recol- 
lect with what thoughtless velocity she ha? 
>een whirled along a gay succession of ob 
sets, she will not deride the counsels which 

R 



194 

would guard her children from that fascina- 
tion. We would not, however, debar them 
from an innocent and pleasing exercise 
which conduces to exterior grace, and may 
be indulged in perfect unison with the most 
rigid delicacy and prudence. Balls for 
young people, have indeed been turned into 
hot-beds of vanity, by the folly of their con- 
ductors; but adhering to simplicity in dress 
and deportment, and no excess being com- 
mitted by late hours, or unsuitable refresh- 
ments, they may be converted into semina- 
ries of discretion. The youth of both sexes 
will have less to correct in mature age, if un- 
der the eye of their parents, at a period 
when they are not too self-sufficient to take 
advice, they shall have learnt to govern 
their emotions, and to regulate their conduct 
in scenes resembling those where they are 
frequently to meet, when a few years have 
set them at liberty. 

Measures of precaution may prevent the 
most afflicting calamities, and insinuating 
youths whose alliance a parent would dis- 
approve of, must not be admitted on the 
terms of intimate acquaintance; for a girl, 
though sincerely devoted to filial obedience, 
may have, her affectiom 30 far engaged as 
to leave no alternative between an unauspi- 
cious union, or an ill-sustained disappoint- 
ment. If a partner, an assistant, a secretary, 



195 

or preceptor of the above description is to 
be received, the girls upon their emerging 
from woman-hood should not be permitted 
to remain at home. 

The influence of vanity on the female 
mind demands the most serious attention; 
and where it prevails in the other sex, it ne- 
ver fails to enervate every nobler propensity 
and to form a frivolous character. 

We shall introduce the subject by an 
anecdote: — A gentleman who had lately 
inherited a splendid residence, gave a fete on 

taking possession. The Duchess of 

honoured the occasion in a dress which, 
though far from being superb, was perfectly 
appropriate. The lady of a neighbouring 
nabob made a display of gems and other or- 
naments of great value, and she was very 

handsome and not ungraceful. Lord , 

one of the best informed and most polite 
noblemen of the age, was on a tour to Scot- 
land. The renewal of early acquaintance 
produced an invitation to the ball. He arri- 
ved late, and as the company were enga- 
ged in a country dance, his lordship glided 
into the room without any introduction. 
He sat near a communicative old lady, who 
entered into conversation with him: and a? 

the duchess of was the general theme, 

she extolled her dignified affability and un- 
affected sweetness. ? I am much disappoint 



196 

ed in her," said his lordship, " I think the 
lady in plain white satin has more of the 
easy elegance and polished grace of a wo- 
man of fashion; and though her features do 
not bear examination so minutely, there is 
such intelligence in her eye, such benignity 
in her smile, as appears to me far more love- 
ly " " I have just let you speak all your 
mind," replied the old lady, " and now I 
will tell you it is the duchess herself you 
have praised; she did not come here to 
eclipse little folk like me, and indeed she 
avoids giving us the examole of foolish ex- 
pense when she condescends to mix with 
us." When the dance was concluded his 
lordship's sentiments were speedily whis- 
pered round the room. We leave it to the 
reader to apply them. 

Ladies who are sincerely inclined to mo- 
deration, are sometimes betrayed into indi- 
rect encouragement of personal vanity, 
from an excess of apprehension that without 
implicit obedience to the mandates of fa- 
shion, their little girls may grow up slatterns. 
Assuredly neatness and propriety can be 
made habitual without degenerating to ex- 
travagant and superfluous decoration in 
dress 

En en where rank and fortune demand costly 
materials, no vain emotion will be excited in 
the bosom of a child always accustomed to 



197- 

their use; nor can she have any idea that 
they are marks of distinction unless her at- 
tendants give her the baneful information. 
If permitted to wear a frock, without com- 
ments on the addition her beauty receives 
from it, or if it is not mentioned as being 
finer than could be afforded by her compa- 
nions, no bad consequence can ensue. 

Its delicate texture may be praised as the 
product of ingenuity or industry, but never 
as an an article of finery; that quality she 
will know in good time; but in opening 
youth let her regard clothing as a mere de- 
fence from the weather. No doubt she will 
hear of its effect in embellishing her person 
notwithstanding all the precautions her mo- 
ther can observe or enjoin, yet to diminish 
an evil is always a point worth gaining. 
The most perfect elegance, in whatever re- 
lates to external appearance may be inculca- 
ted, without one intimation or allusion that 
can lead a child to attribute the care bestowed 
on her to any motive beyond a wish for 
giving a general habit of exactness. Tell 
her that all wise and good people do every 
"thing in the best manner, knowing that neg- 
ligence in small matters may grow into a 
worse custom, and bring on omissions that 
would destroy the happiness of her parents. 
Her own heart will subjoin that such mis- 
conduct would also make herself miserable, 
k 2 



198 

It is the acknowledged dictate of prudence 
to accomplish our views by the most sim- 
ple and sure methods; but in making vanity 
an engine of education, we shall find its ef- 
fect too complicated and incongruous. If 
its effervescence shall be excited, it will, 
like a subtile, active poison, pervade the 
whole system, and deform native beauties 
by the low arts inseparable from a craving 
for admiration. Let us calculate what may 
he hazarded, and what may be lost by intro- 
ducing absurd self- value; envy, affectation, 
and perhaps imprudent expenses, with all 
the train of follies these include. Admitting 
that a desire of appearing to the highest ad- 
vantage shall quicken a girl's attention to 
her dress, or to showy accomplishments, 
her attractions will upon the whole not be 
•nhanced. Self-conceit never fails to give 
iisgust, and though a young creature la- 
bours to disguise it, she cannot succeed. It 
is ii most important fact, that it is easier to 
exterminate a foible than occasionally to 
••onceal it. The easy expedient we have 
suggested cultivates all the graces without 
the hateful alloy of overating them. 

Several eminent writers on education 

e called the attention of mothers to the 

bad consequences of giving gaudy toys; and 

y have justly reprobated the error of 

: children prize their possessions for 



199 

being new. A passion for glittering show 7 
and for low gratifications may be discour- 
aged by giving any part of dress, and all 
animal indulge»cies as things of course; and 
as we have already observed, the novelty 
and variety in children's pastimes should be 
obtained through their own active invention. 
This will in some measure exempt them 
from a painful sense of privation when di- 
versified pleasures must be exchanged for 
books and lessons: and finding they must 
depend on each other for amusement, will 
draw still closer the ties of natural attach- 
ment. If to this a due regard to good man* 
n rs is superadded, and strictly required 
from them to one another, their lives will 
seldom be embittered by contention. Vani- 
ty causes much strife in the nursery. The 
misses dispute about features and dresses — 
the masters about cleverness — but all pro- 
ceed from inattention in their mother, and 
want of judgment in the nurses, who, by 
their idle discourse, have conveyed these 
ideas. If to this shall be joined maternal 
partiality to the beauty of her family, heart 
burnings and soitows are inevitable. A child 
4 seeing her wishes the first consideration, her 
choice first consulted, and her sisters denied 
what she can obtain, will be but too apt to 
arrogate some superiority; and finding her- 
self an object of greater notice abroad as 



200 

at home, will further inflate her vanity. But 
all these privileges will be purchased at a 
heavy price in losing the heartfelt,endearing 
sympathies, interchanged by good-tempered 
liberal sisters. Let mothers fairly look into 
the consequence of these preferences, and 
they will shun errors teeming with evils 
to the beloved object not less than to the 
rest of her children. 

The utmost solicitude and tenderness 
cannot make the favourite's passage through 
life of one smooth and ^leasing tenor. She 
must encounter some of the u natural shocks 
that flesh is heir to," and if unaccustomed 
to moderate her feelings, every "rub" will act 
with more painful attrition through her own 
impatience. If she enters into the marriage 
state, the same habits will indispose her for 
assimilating with the tastes of her partner 
for life; and unless she is powerfully res- 
trained by religious and moral sentiments, 
which are indeed almost totally inconipa* 
tible with intemperate vanity, a self idoli- 
zes youthful wife is laid open to all the 
Jhideou woes that have been occasioned by 
encouraging general adulation. Alas! how 
often have the annals of hereditary honour 
been <!• eply stained by the vain victims of 
fraili v ! ! 

Though in the lower walks of life the 
bnyid of disgrace very seldom thus "glares 



201 

horribly," great unhappiness arises from ob- 
durate hi lustiness. The comforts and decen- 
cir s of her table, and the appearance made 
b} aer husband and tall daughters,- will seem 
bn of seeondary importance to the matron 
%\ lose prime delight hasever been the adorn- 
ing of her own dear person; and without 
mentioning the ruinous extravagance to 
which this ambition may tend, we shall 
find its ordinary course replete with petty 
tortures Some neighbours will at times 
have preceded in displaying a new fashion, 
or c.itvie in splendour the vain female who 
even in her vernal season cannot escape 
mortifications, and no artifice can retard or 
conceal the odious depredations of time 
which she is yet unprepared to endure. 

Amidst all the inconveniencies of a nar- 
row fortune, the humble, placid, industrious 
mother is incalculably happier in giving up 
many comforts for the sake of her children, 
than the uncontrolled mistress of affluence 
whose self centered vanity is her riding pas- 
sion. We have seen plain good people, vain, 
of their offspring, and it is a great weakness 
as it leads young, creatures into the foibles 
we have been investigating; but as he error 
of the parent originates in ill directed affec- 
tion, it is more to be lamented than blamed, 
and is in no respect so contemptible as in- 
dividual vanity. Could we persuade the 



202 

fond mother, that in becoming vain her love- 
ly girl will also become unamiable, how 
carefully would she guard her from the 
temptation. She would anxiously prevent 
her guests or domestics from holding con- 
versation in her hearing that could excite 
ideas of peculiar enchantment being ascri- 
bed to beauty: without giving the child 
room to suppose she had any direct aim, 
she would frequently intimate the short du- 
ration of youth and personal attractions, and 
the superior value of good dispositions; and 
far from encouraging the love of dress io set 
herself off, she would omit no means to ob- 
viate the idea, This we know by experi- 
ence to be easily practicable, and we have 
had full evidence of the happy consequences 
of the mode we suggest. 

In a state of celibacy, unavailing solici- 
tude to prolong the season of admiration 
makes the waning charmer very unhappy, 
and produces the ludicrous assumption of 
girlish dress and manners to veil the ap- 
proach of autumnal decays, whilst the ridi- 
cule attached to these unequal efforts must 
be felt at times with poignant anguish. 
How different is her situation who has not 
been intoxicated by the bright and bloom- 
ing fascinations of youth! she resigns these 
gay pretensions with a good grace; and by 
many estimable and agreeable qualities si 



203 

maintains influence and connexions in the 
world that warm her heart and exalt her 
character. We have known nephews, nieces, 
and remoter relatives supply to an unmar- 
ried lady all the endearing satisfaction and 
deference of filial gratitude. We have be- 
held her, without relinquishing social plea- 
sures, not only a parent to the family of a 
sister, or brother, but to the children of the 
poor, Inquiring into their necessities, and 
promoting and directing remedies for their 
ailments, their ignorance, or distresses. 
These employments afford present satisfac- 
tion, and the sweetest retrospections, and 
leave no room for the meddling inquisitive- 
ness which the want of an interesting pur- 
suit is alleged to create in well meaning but 
officiously busy spinsters. 

We are aware that the pride and the pro- 
fit of worth and usefulness ought not to be 
held out as motives to the young mind; but 
parents need every collateral inducement for 
invigorating their present endeavours to form 
their children for the vicissitudes they may 
have to sustain. We cannot foresee their 
lot therefore our cares must embrace a large 
circle of probabilities. The consciousness 
of solid worth, and a capacity for usefulness 
may be rendered more delightful than the 
swellings of vanity, and a hope of obtaining 
esteem and confidence may be made more 



• 204 

powerful in the unsophisticated mind than a 
desire for admiration. Entertaining rational 
and worthy thoughts, will lead to respecta- 
ble conduct, and vain, frivolous notions, to 
corresponding manners. 

To see the growing intellect expand in 
all the graces and virtues we have fondly 
cherished and inculcated, is an abundant re- 
compence for the most assiduous instruc- 
tion: and if we contemplate witn enthusias- 
tic pleasure the unfolding branches of a 
plant or flower that has risen to perfection 
under our culture, with what transport 
must a parent regard the perceptions of a 
duteous child in its progress to new and 
more valuable improvement. 

Solicitude to cultivate the faculties of 
youth for lucrative or ambitious views mis- 
leads some very sensible parents, who ap- 
pear to forget that without moral rectitude, 
benevolence and circumspection deeply 
seated in the heart, and common sense to 
weigh the greater against the lesser duties of 
life, no classical or scientific attainment can 
prevent many glaring defects in conduct. 
A self-conceited boy has generally many 
worse faults as he advances to maturity. 
Puppyism, and all the extravagancies that 
attend it, maybe occasioned by inadvertent 
praises bestowed when the child was 
believed to be too young and heedless to 
mind them. 



205 

Genius is the subject of vanity with boys, 
but in their presence it should never be 
mentioned with applause. Let us take into 
account not only present but remote conse- 
quences, and we shall be very careful to con 
vey no impression that may tempt a youth 
to contemn the labour of intense application 
or to sink into despondency from a con- 
sciousness that he has no pretensions to great 
talents. Children of both sexes should be 
convinced that no gift of nature, or of situa- 
tion confers merit, but in proportion as it 
calls forth estimable qualities. Spirited ef- 
forts to overcome difficulties, and instances 
of persevering diligence ought to be highly 
commended, and even casual hints on the 
subject may become motives to exertion. — 
Strong passions, or very volatile spirits will 
for a time retard the effect, *but what child- 
ren hear frequently will sink into their mem- 
ory, touch their feelings, and gradually in- 
fluence their conduct The efficacy of rei- 
terated instruction cannot be too strongly 
enforced upon the minds of those who are 
to manage youth; and though the multipli- 
city of works on speculative education have 
certainly contributed largely to practical im- 
provement, we believe still greater perfection 
is attainable. From the opinions of differ- 
ent writers, parents may deduce systems for 
themselves, adapted to peculiar circumstan 



206 

ces and we should condemn as false delicacy 
a reluctance to obtrude any communication 
that could promote an object of such impor- 
tance. To offer advice to individuals may 
be deem officious; but in submitting it to 
the public, the attention with which it is hon- 
oured must be free and voluntary, and a sea- 
sonable hint may assist the reader in promot- 
ing mental growth and vigour in her off- 
spring, and give her information on one sub^ 
ject, though on all others she may be far 

more intelligent than the author. The 

stream of knowledge or of happiness must 
be supplied by innumerable rills, some of 
them proceeding from humble sources. 

We now have lightly glanced at the means 
of guarding against the vices and follies to 
which youth is peculiarly liable; and we 
cannot conclude without a solemn caution 
to parents in the words of an author, whose 
penetration is unquestionable, however some 
of his opinions may be regretted, "nothing 
tends more effectually to poison morality in 
its source in the minds of youth, than the 
practice of holding one language, and laying 
down one set of precepts for the observation 
of the young, and another for adults." If 
children see their rulers indulge in the com- 
mission of faults for which they are repre- 
hended, they will feel themselves at liberty to 
transgress whenever the offence can be con- 
cealed. 



207 

A religious and devout spirit should ap- 
parently govern the whole conduct of those 
who require pious exercises and self-denials 
from their children, but a severe aspect will 
not fail to counteract all edifying exhorta- 
tions. Rigid restraint on harmless gaiety, or 
gloomy denunciation of penal consequences 
have driven young men to seek ease and 
freedom in sceptical doubts, which, favour- 
ing their darling inclinations, have been tacit- 
ly adopted as the clear dictates of reason. — 
The injunctions of an austere and punctilious 
earthly parent, may thus estrange her son 
from the duties he would render with a wal- 
ling and cheerful heart to his Father in hea- 
ven, if these duties were represented accord- 
ing to the genuine principles of his service, 
which is indeed perfect freedom. It has been 
observed, "that the being and holy attributes 
of the blessed God seems to be ihc only 
truth of w T hich we have undoubted certain- 
ty;" and these are the natural sentiments of 
young men who have been taught to trace 
the wisdom and goodness of the Almighty 
in this "universal frame:" but the instructor 
must respect the feelings of an ardent mind, 
jealous of every encroachment on its liberty 
that cannot be proven as demonstrably in- 
cumbent. Let us make it evident that Chris- 
tianity exacts no performance, and forbids 
no enjoyment by arbitrary command; but 



208 

that whilst the precepts of our Divine Re- 
deemer lead to life eternal, they also pro- 
mote temporal peace and felicity. We must 
with peculiar earnestness point out the shin- 
ing ev idences of a life to come, so numerous 
that the only ground of astonishment must 
be, how any person possessing the use of 
common understanding, can be so blinded by 
his passions as to act unworthy of an inheri- 
tance, compared to which, crowns and scep- 
tres are insignificant as the toys of infancy. 
Under these impressions a youth will not 
fall an easy prey to vice and folly. He will 
perceive that no extreme of religious zeal 
can be so irrational and absurd, as apathy, or 
thoughlessness concerning his condition after 
death; and revering the superior wisdom of 
his indulgent, but attentive parent, the recol- 
lection of her chastened kindness will give 
efficacy to her admonitions, when they rise 
up in her memory long after Iter place on 
earth shall ji ad Iter no more. If these con- 
siderations were allowed due weight, the dis- 
solute conduct of some young men brought 
up by sincerely pious, but too strict monitors, 
would not have drawn discredit on christian 
education. The sons of bigoted religionists, 
like ihe sons of misers, go to the opposite 
extremes from a spirit of contradiction; and 
the enemies of order and of economy take 
ftStOJl from thence to plead the can- 



209 

licentiousness. The best and most beneficial 
principles when carried to great extremes, 
are productive of the worst effects, and ought 
to be kept within the bounds of just moder- 
ation in our conduct, and in the maxims 
we prescribe to our families. 

Inattention to practical arithmetic, and 
false hopes of parental affluence, have plun- 
ged many into embarrassments which correct 
information might have prevented. Young 
persons might be desired to sum up the exact 
amount of their father's income and after 
deducting the general family expenses, let 
the remainder be apportioned to each indi- 
vidual, calculating how much may be allow- 
ed for personal necessaries. The articles 
coming under these denominations must be 
enumerated, the sum subdivided according- 
ly; each separate item should be entered into 
a book, with firm determination never to ex- 
ceed it, and they must all be distinctly sum- 
med up at short intervals, so as to guard against 
encroachments This habit early introduced, 
and perseveringly followed in youth, would 
obviate many irreparable misfortunes in ri- 
per years. 



9 2 



210 

GOVERNORS AND GOVERNESSES. 

MANLY, rational, consistent piety is the 
chief quality requisite for a guide of youth. 
There is a charm in the example of genuine 
goodness with which no stoical precepts can 
touch the mind: but gloomy enthusiasm is as 
entirely distinct from the impressive influ- 
ence of rectitude and benevolence, as com- 
pulsion is from conviction. The formalist 
may extort a certain routine of heartless 
studies, but the pupil cannot engage in them 
with the freedom and fervour of spirit im- 
bibed by witnessing the effect of virtues that 
have been inspired by true religion. 

Sympathetic imitation and partial rever- 
ence lead children involuntarily to new mo- 
del every expression and movement by those 
of their teachers. Peculiarities of appearance, 
of dialect, or manners, should therefore be 
regarded as insuperable objections. 

Parents who have paid little attention to 
the difficulties of tuition form expectations 
too sanguine; and if the children do not ful- 
fil these ardent wishes, it is imputed to some 
failure in their instructor; but a due regard 
to the child's comfort and solid improve- 
ment ought to prevent too great a desire for 
very rapid acquisitions. To form the grow- 
rrg intellect, and to impart reason, sentiment 



211 

and knowledge, to a mind that has not per- 
haps one precise idea, cannot be accomplish- 
ed in a very short time. 

The governor or governess may explain 
elementary principles in terms very intelli- 
gible to a docile and attentive child; but to 
engage and to fix application upon the gid- 
dy, or to prevail with the intractable to 
make exertions, will dissipate a considerable 
portion of the time allotted to study. Vio- 
lent suscitations of attention may extort 
some performances, but they are not to be 
purchased without the sacrifice of higher 
considerations. The parents should partici- 
pate in, or at least they should frequently 
witness the obstacles and discouragements 
with which a teacher has to struggle, and 
they will be convinced that they ought to 
refrain from censures; besides, their presence 
and authority must promote the end in 
view, and be of infinite service in every res- 
pect. Even the plain sense and sagacity of 
a pair whose education has been defective, 
may advance their children's improvement 
by their frequent visits to the school rooms. 
Ayoung instructor has a character to estab- 
lish, and it depends upon the expedition 
with which the scholars are advanced; but 
hurrying forward a child at the expense of 
present happiness, of temper, candour, and 
love of employment in after life, is not more 



212 

injudicious than disabling the limbs from ra- 
pidly completing a journey, which, without 
inconvenience might be taken with more 
deliberation. We beseech parents to con- 
sider that it is of little essential moment 
whether the boy or girl shall be finished at 
fourteen or fifteen years of age; but it is of 
the last consequence that they shall neither 
be irascible nor sullen, dejected nor disinge- 
nuous, artful nor averse to occupation. We 
would not be the advocates of idleness. 
Every hour should be diligently occupied — 
but as far as encouragement can influence 
inclination, we would have inclination to 
accord with duty. f l he more pleasant and 
free we can render the pursuits of children, 
the more strenuous will be their efforts in 
all that is useful, honourable and excellent. 
We are not indeed to wait for these days of 
wisdom — there must be stated times, and 
stilted employments, and if we adhere to 
them with uniform, but kind exactitude, 
they will seem more and more agreeable. 

A judicious tea her will attend to im- 
prove the reason and strengthen the judg- 
ment rather than to exercise the capacity 
for retention. The memory may be bur- 
thrnod. whilst the faculties that are to digest 
the trees r< d knowledge have scaree any 
perception oftfn ir '.-wn pot* era It is a good 
method altera child has learned any rule Ot 



213 

extract by rote, to require him to give the 
meaning in his own artless language, either 
verbally or in writing It is of the utmost 
importance to ascertain that he is able to 
affix explicit ideas to the subject of his stu- 
dies; an ... he should be animated by a clear 
conviction that the human intellect is capa- 
ble of great performances, if time be not 
wasted in frivolous or immoral pursuits. 
Folly and vice should be represented to 
him as implacable foes to mental improve- 
ment in every period of life. 

An instructor will find great advantage 
by frequently asking himself, am I taking 
the most effectual method to advance my 
pupil's progress? can I define this principle 
or rule more clearly? If the parent takes an 
interest in these points, such as we have 
recommended, he may advert to particulars 
which, in the eagerness of communication 
may escape the speaker, and perhaps a plain 
sensible man who knows little of the topic 
under discussion, may more readily find 
out the difficulties that puzzle the young 
mind, than if he came fully instructed in it. 
When any difference of opinion arises, ir 
ought to be discussed in absence of the 
children, who never should perceive that 
any arrangement or opinion of their teacher 
is disapproved of by others. Kindness and 
deference from the parents are necessary to 



214 

enable him to make beneficial impressions. 
Respectability in his own attire* dcpor. ment, 
and manners, is also indispensable in giving 
this influence. 

A residence in town undoubtedly affords 
many advantages conducive to education; 
besides giving young people habitual confi- 
dence in themselves, easy manners, acute- 
ness of discernment, and knowledge of the 
world; but all these benefits hang upon 
other circumstances, and upon particular 
management hardly to be expected from a 
servant. Rambling boys are not willingly 
subjected to female controul, nor are the 
companions of a domestic calculated to im- 
prove girls. 

Pure morality and delicate prudence are 
of such indispensable necessity to self-enjoy- 
ment, to general prosperity, andgood esteem 
that no acquisition can make up for the 
want of these principles. Feople who have 
never lived in toivn can form little idea of 
the snares arising from low company; and as 
the faithful friends of youth, we would urge 
them to remember mat they ought to pre- 
serve their families from every approach to 
evil. Two or three relations or neighbours 
will find the expense rto object if they em 
ploy one governor or governess; and they 
might have ali the children in their houses 
by turns. If the mother bv having an add'; 



us 

tional servant could become the in tmctresz 
of her family, the benefit of her constant 
attention would fully compensate all peeu 
niary sacrifices. A short residence in town 
or in a respectable boarding school would 
complete an education carefully conducted 
in the country, and to whicn only a little 
finishing was wanted. 



SENTIMENTS AND HABITS FOR YOUNG 
PERSONS INTENDED FOR BUSINESS. 

THE ill effect of superfluous endeavours 
to amuse children has been already noticed; 
and if hurtful to the offspring of affluence, 
how pernicious must artificial gratifications 
become to those who in after life are to be 
subservient to the will of others. Young peo- 
ple who have been born or reduced to this 
destination should be prepared for it by eve- 
ry sentiment that can repress wilful humours 
or stimulate to cheerful exertion To recon- 
cile them to their lot. and to the endurance 
of many unforseen hardships, their hearts 
should be filled with reverence for the un- 
erring wisdom, power, and benignity of the 
_ at disposer of all events. Let them be 
assured that all are equally objects of his 
care and favour who seek those blessings 
by sincere prayer and obedience. Convince 



216 

them that God assigns to each of his crea- 
tures the station most conductive to univer- 
sal good; and that rational felicity, all that 
is truly necessary to adorn or to sweeten 
life does not depend on our place in society. 
The useful arts are neither gross nor insipid 
to those who pursue them with ennobling 
views, with an upright, liberal, benevolent, 
and cultivated mind; and there is in a ration- 
al and immortal nature an inherent dignity 
unalienable by any malevolence or power, 
unless the individual shall be accessary to its 
diminution by unworthy conduct. So long 
as they respect themselves by good beha- 
viour, they will meet with esteem from all 
whose opinion deserves to be regarded. 

Children whose future maintenance must 
be the fruit of industry, should be very early 
accustomed to its exercise. If allowed when 
young to taste the pleasures of idleness, it 
will afterwards make application more un- 
welcome. Besides timely and close attention 
to branches of instruction, they ought to be 
accustomed to do as much as they can for 
themselves, for their parents, or for each other. 
With these impressions and habits, the son or 
daughter of a gentleman will undertake to 
compensate for the want of fortune with the 
sime happy alacrity which softens the toils 
and sustains the fortitude of a peasant. To 
^arly predilections and association*, aided by 



217 

the fiftrce of custom, we may trace the gaiety 
and contentment so conspicuous in the in- 
ferior classes of mankind, who think them- 
selves completely fortunate, if by daily la- 
bour they can earn a competence of home- 
ly tood and raiment; and all who must owe 
subsistence to the diligent employment of 
their talents ought to form congenial dispo- 
sitions and habits, even in the first stages of 
their lives. The most encouraging prospects 
should be held out from beneficial and vir- 
tuous occupation, by calling the children's 
attention to instances of success, and by 
mentioning that people who have a deter- 
minate object of pursuit, are upon the whole 
happier than those who consume their days 
in idleness. If the family have fallen from 
more prosperous circumstances, no regrets 
should be expressed in hearing of its youth- 
ful members, as it may dwell on their ima- 
gination, and augment their reluctance to 
descend to a lower sphere. But, whilst the 
parents use every means to fit the adventur- 
ers for present exertion, they must not lose 
sight of qualifying them to enjoy its fruits, 
by refined manners and a cultivated under 
standing Feminine employments lead to 
intercourse with ladies whose polished ex- 
ample confers improvement: but great pains 
must be bestowed in childhood to dispose 
the young apprentice to fill up his leisure 

T 



218 

hours to advantage. Besides rendering him 
agreeable and intelligent, a taste for well 
chosen books will help to confirm his prin- 
ciples, keep him from scenes of riot and de- 
pravity, and in all respects meliorate his 
disposition. If he succeeds in business, the 
treasured knowledge will set him upon a 
level with the higher ranks to whom wealth 
may introduce him; and a young man pos- 
sessing general information, will be able to 
engage in a different line, if that which he 
first attempted should by any variation 
in the balance of trade disappoint his hopes. 
A character for unblemished integrity is 
the first requisite for persons in business; 
but young people should be made to know 
it costs much less trouble to be than to 
seem inflexibly firm in truth and honesty. 
The convenience attending deception is 
temporary, but the entanglements it produ- 
ces are endless. They lead to other false- 
hoods, which are speedily detected, for all- 
righteous Providence has decreed that eve- 
ry one is soon known for what they are, 
and the only means to obtain a good cha- 
racter is to deserve it. This truth should be 
engraven on the young mind. 



219 

SEMINARIES OF EDUCATION. 

THE first entrance into school is an im- 
portant era in human life: and, as a truth of 
immeasurable magnitude, we again remind 
the fond mother that upon the sentiments 
with which she has embued the mind of 
her lisping infants depend in a great mea- 
sure the comfort and proficiency of the 
school boy, the happiness of the man, and 
the blessedness of the immortal spirit. If 
the infant has been taught without enthu- 
siastic heat, or gloomy terror, to love and to 
fear Almighty God, from whom it is im- 
possible to hide even one thought — if he 
has learnt to reverence himself as a creature 
though prone to evil yet capable of much 
good, by continual reference to the Holy 
will of the Divine Inspector of all his 
thoughts, words and actions — if he has been 
accustomed at home with his brothers and 
sisters to act upon the principle of doing to 
others as he would wish to be done to, and 
that an union of agreeable, useful and esti- 
mable qualities is necessary to make inter- 
course with his fellow-creatures comforta- 
ble — all which may be impressed on the 
heart by seasonable, short and easy lessons 
in full consistency with the playfulness and 
simplicity of early life. If the child ha? also 



220 

iearnt to derive a laudable self complacency 
from the improvements which he owes to 
his own industry* he will at a school not on- 
ly en j°y 'h«3 mirth and cheerfulness of a 
child, but also a foretaste of the internal sa- 
tisfactione of a rational agent; he will also 
attain the good will of his companions, and 
the approbation of his masters — so far as 
can be merited by a weak erring creature 
in the very season of passion unsubdued 
and unmodified by experience. Parents, the 
most judicious and most willing to support 
the authority of teachers, are very painfully 
moved* by the disgrace and punishment of 
their children; and if they w r ould always deal 
honestly with their own conscience, it would 
tell them that the poor infant not un fre- 
quent ly pays the penalty of neglect or mis- 
management in his first habits. Very great 
proficiency is required; and exertion is not 
to be produced by moral or prudential 
motives, if the mind has never felt their in- 
fluence. Severe coercion must be employ- 
ed as the most immediate stimulus; for if the 
teacher shall wait the gradual but more ef- 
fectual operations of kind influence and pa 
tient instruction, he may be blamed as dila- 
tory. Do we apologize for rigour? God 
forbid. But we would illustrate this fact, 
that inflictions at school may be the conse 
quence of errors at home* Let infants re 



221 

ceive their first impressions and habits chief- 
ly from well ordered parental attention and 
in school they will hardly ever incur severe 
treatment. 

We have experienced the blessed influ- 
ence of a reverence for all that is presented 
in the form of duty, even before the first 
stage of life had passed away; and it is a 
motive which becomes more efficient with 
every new accession to the reasoning pow- 
ers. If an infant has learned a little repeat- 
edly during every day since his earliest ca- 
pacity to retain instructions, custom will 
make it as a second nature to exert his pow- 
ers, and if his tasks be diversified by assign- 
ing him short lessons in reading, spelling, 
geography, or a few easy numbers to be add- 
ed together, the mind will be refreshed by 
variety. Education cannot assume the care- 
less form of amusements, but it may become 
interesting, cheerful, and familiar, so as to be 
preferred before vapid idleness. Early appli- 
cation to useful studies prevents that child, 
ishness so visible in little ones who are fre- 
quently trifling, and who are spoken to m 
unmeaning words by way of amusement. 
Good sensemay.be expressed in very sim- 
ple language, and a child may learn much in 
the course of an amusing dialogue; nor should 
he at three years old be addressed in a style 
which might not help to raise the tone of 
t 3 



222 

his feelings and understanding at the age ot 
six. Little ones who can derive uniform 
attention from their parents, or from a sensi- 
ble, well principled superintendant, ought to 
receive the rudiments of their first studies at 
home, to ensure good habits — but if they 
cannot have decided moral advantages, the 
sooner they are boarded with worthy per- 
sons who devote themselves entirely to the 
care of youth, the less they will have to un- 
learn. This early estrangement from home 
should never take place but in cases where 
they cannot obtain due care. 

The sense of filial subordination and af- 
fection is weakened by absence, it is yet more 
impaired by negligence or severity, and the 
tender charities nurtured by domestic endear- 
ment languish for want of exercise, when the 
infant cannot with perfect freedom impart all 

his thoughts and wishes to his parents— 

After the seventh year a select and well 
managed day school is extremely beneficial 
to children who see little company at home. 
It wears off the shyness which the most 
amiable dispositions are the most apt to con- 
tract in seclusion. It polishes their manners, 
enlarges their ideas, and may save them from 
the exquisite pain of extreme diffidence ift af- 
ter life. A certain degree of ease is ifldispeiv 
sable to makeyoung persons engaging The 
1 ..ns of a consciousness that we act 



aright, dispose others to entertain the same 
opinion of us. 

When children attend a day school they 
must be watched with very great penetration 
and vigilance at home in order to detect and 
oppose the beginning of evil habits. Social 
intercourse either improves or injures every 
individual; and it depends on the manage- 
ment of their vacant hours whether children 
shall be improved orcorrupted by theircom- 
panions. Though they attend a school, 
proficiency greatly depends on learning their 
lessons diligently at home, and if there be 
no private tutor, and the father cannot give 
his aid, it will be the truest proof of amiable 
tenderness in their mother to make a point 
of enforcing application, and hearing even 
boys recite the different portion they must 
prepare for their several classes. A flow of 
volatile spirits, or slow capacity may hinder 
a Tyro from getting his task if left to him* 
self, and yet by a little help he may do very 
well Elder children in the presence of their 
parents may perform this duty which ought 
never to be omitted, and during the time they 
are thus employed, their parents will ave 
opportunity to discover, and to admon sh 
them against any latent foible which new 
scenes may have excited. But this intro- 
spection must not be formal or manifest, for 
unless young people are unconscious of par- 



224 

ticular observation; they cannot appear in a 
just point of view. 

To encourage children by prying enqui- 
ries to repeat trivial circumstances would be 
meanness in the parents, and might lead a 
child to the low and dangerous practice of 
blabbing: but that all which passes at school 
is to be kept a profound secret is not a cor- 
rect maxim. General prohibitions against 
speaking disrespectfully or invidiously of any 
person will be sufficient; but to fetter a child's 
conversation or perplex his ideas of right 
and wrong, by admitting that any conceal- 
ment from his parents is commendable, may 
give rise to criminal reserves and connivan- 
ce. There is a species of curiosity w r hich 
cannot be too strongly reprobated, as it en- 
snares little ones to tell falsehoods, and ulti- 
mately retards their progress in learning. 
Extreme anxiety tempts the parent to en- 
quire how he stands in Lis class; if low, he 
is commanded to ascend; but other scholars 
of brighter parts, or more indebted to assist- 
ance at home, get above him, he is again in- 
terrogated, and punished because he has 
gained no higl er place, whereas his candour 
and humility in stating a circumstance so 
much against himself ought to have been 
encouraged, for what is -scholastic lore," 
even in advancing worldly interest, without 
rectitude? Finding truth iteelf cannot shield 



225 

him from harshness, he learns to deceive, 
and is entangled in a maze of falsehood and 
prevarication; and, quite distressed and un- 
hinged, is still unable to become a bright ge- 
nius No question should be proposed to 
children tnat can risk their integrity. 

P laying truant brings children to make 
numerous artful excuses, and exposes them 
to many temptations and accidents All this 
might be prevented by making it a rule to 
see them safely to school, and to meet them 
on their return, and to conduct them home. 
Considerate minds will not deem trivial any 
expedient to prevent habitual deceptions. 
The keen feelings and heedlessness of little 
ones make them transgress against their own 
better judgment, and bad customs are im- 
perceptibly contracted, which, though for a 
time little regarded, may branch out into 
consequences of which at first their friends 
had little apprehension. 

As all children cannot complete their ed- 
ucation at home, boarding houses for boys 
and girls are institutions most valuable to 
the community. An unfounded idea that 
masters never relax from magisterial autho- 
rity, makes young people very averse to 
become their inmates; but the paternal vig- 
ilance and coercion they are anxious to shun 
is their safeguard, and will recommend such 
a situation to prudent parents. On the other 



226 

hand, home, whether it be their usual abode, 
or a temporary residence, ought to be made 
joyous and easy. When under no painful 
restraint, the child's true character will be 
known, and of this knowledge a judi- 
cious teacher will avail himself at school. 
Even the ordinary conversation in a well 
informed family, tends to unfold talent, ma- 
tures the judgment, regulates the taste, and 
confirms the morals; and notwithstanding 
the heedlessness of youth, the daily recur- 
rence of edifying remarks will make indeli- 
ble impressions on his mind, whilst the 
young person, who in vulgar or ignorant 
society is daily losing part of the better sen- 
timents and more refined manners which he 
acquired in his father's house, has his intel- 
lect degraded at the season most favourable 
to its expansion and improvement. 

A celebrated writer on female education 
has observed, that the efficacy of the best 
conducted system is not so soon apparent 
as in the superficial detail. 'Tis most true, 
that time only can prove the purity, upright- 
ness, and wisdom of a cultivated and well 
regulated mind, but exterior embellishments 
and showy acquirements are speedily mani- 
fested; and all are able to observe, and in 
some me&sure to decide upon their progress. 

The friends of virtue, who know their 
real inter I ill promote them by enhan 



ting her attractions; and an union of worthy, 
atfriable* and engaging qualities may be ef- 
fected by furnishing respectable motives 
even for the lighter studies. 

The inclinations of young people must 
be thwarted when they run counter to solid 
advantages. A physician cannot compound 
all drugs from sweets and aromatics, nor 
will all disorders of the mind give way with- 
out some admonitions offensive to youthful 
pride, But unless flagrant offences call for 
animadversion, general strictures, and im- 
plied cautions come home most convincing- 
ly to the feelings; for it is certain that against 
pointed reproof the haughty selfishness of 
human nature shuts up the heart It is the 
truest kindness thus gently to dispose our 
pupils, to self consideration, as every frailty 
we can overcome makes way for an augmen- 
tation of happiness. On rectitude depends 
the comfortable use of external mercies, and 
without the heartfelt consciousness of worth 
rational beings must be at variance with them- 
selves. 

But a child may seem to be much chang- 
ed for the better, and yet if too soon remov- 
ed from his instructors, he will relapse into 
former habits. Where principles are not es- 
tablished, virtues may be local, or at least 
so intimately connected with certain modes 
of restriction that if any link of the chain 



228 

be disjointed, the whole will fall into disor- 
der. Continuance under the same manage* 
ment is therefore necessary until the judg- 
ment be so far confirmed, as resolutely to 
adhere to its own approval. Those who un- 
dertake the direction of the human intellect- 
after its habits are in some measure formed, 
have a task far more arduous than the pa- 
rent who moulds the ductile sensibility of in- 
fant minds. Children have an unfortunate 
propensity to impute to ill humour the repri- 
mands they receive from hired instructors, 
whose influence can only be maintained by 
patience and good humour, besides, the ex- 
ample of self-command will be of the highest 
advantage to the pupils. Formal lectures 
will seldom be of use; gentle appeals both to 
the understanding and feelings must be fre- 
quent, but so delicate, as neither to wound 
the pride, to irritate, or to depress a girl at a 
distance from home. All practices really 
immoral must be disallowed at first. The 
child will make less resistance when quite a 
stranger, and the hazard of any had exam- 
ple to her companions forbids toleration: but 
in what relates only to humour, greater lati- 
tude and delay are admissible; and excessive 
volatility or violence may be more success- 
fully combated b) blow approaches. Though 
these faults be inconvenient, instruction and 
i of well employed time 



229 
will soften the extremes; but a child who has 
been much indulged, if subjected to a severe 
and sudden change of government, w r ill per- 
haps become inert and gloomy. Strong 
measures do indeed constrain the outward 
behaviour, but the mind pertinaciously cling- 
ing to former desires, will seize every inter 
val of liberty for their gratification. We 
must, therefore, with a very tender hand, un- 
bind these trammels; and as we have before 
observed, the less the child can perceive our 
intention, the more readily will she yield to 
the effect. Children also conduce much to 
improve each other. The mixture and col- 
lision of the grave, the gay, the mild, and 
the imperious, the active and the sluggish, 
the circumspect and the impetuous, is bene- 
ficial by their contrary influence upon one 
another. But this advantage can only take 
place when they speak and act without con- 
straint by shrewd remarks, correcting each 
others' foibles. Therefore some part of every- 
day should, as the reward of diligence, be 
left at their own disposal, allowing them a 
large apartment, where they may have full 
liberty for communicating their sentiments 
to each other, and for bodily exercise. 

Want of candour may be evident, yet in- 
capable of proof, and if even we could con- 
vict the child, it is more prudent to give no 
intimation of the discovery, unless it may bt 



280 

necessary as an example to others. It is so 
easy to disappoint, to frustrate, and to weary 
out artifice in children, and to place every 
kind of falsehood in an odious light, with- 
out any personal reflection, that we should 
avoid coming to particulars. Rebukes only 
irritate a disposition hardened by habitual 
cunning; and all the effect will be to make 
the offender more wary in other deceptions, 
which is but aggravating the mental disease. 
Very young pupils, or those of riper years 
whose general conduct and manners require 
particular superintendance, will be seriously 
injured by passing from one master to ano- 
ther for receiving different branches of edu- 
cation. Each professor will no doubt im- 
prove the child in the department he under- 
takes; but the many nameless proprieties 
and graces of feminine deportment come 
not under his cognizance. Governesses of 
competent ability may be obtained by giv- 
ing adequate encouragement; and since tui- 
tion is the only source of independence for 
accomplished females, every pica that can 
touch the heart of benevolence should inter- 
cede in their behalf on equal terms, and 
when it is evident that they are qualified to 
confer every advantage, prejudice can only 
prefer the other sex. How absurd would it 
-rein to have boys taught by females, when 
a master could be procured! Superior excel- 



231 

lence in music, or any of the higher refine- 
ments of education, joined to gentleman- 
like manners and respectability of charac- 
ter, are irresistible claims, especially as in- 
structors of more advanced pupils; but chil- 
dren who are backward in the essential 
rules of behaviour ought to be taught by a 
governess. If deserving of her trust she will 
attend to improve the disposition, the tem- 
per, language, and address, and to polish the 
general carriage, whilst occupied in teaching 
the detail of education. 

This uniform attention, and the example 
of personal elegance from one instructress, 
is the nearest resemblance to domestic in- 
struction. We cannot exactly quote the 
words, but we shall use the sentiments of a 
favourite author, in observing that when 
plans are well laid, and rules carefully di- 
gested, it is the wisdom of the ruler, and for 
the advantage of the pupil that they be 
punctually observed. But occasions for ex- 
acting obedience must not be needlessly 
multiplied, which would teaze and disgust 
without benefitting the pupils. 



BOOKS AND LITERATURE. 

WE have heard an ingenious man pro- 
duce many arguments to prove that a lileia- 



232 

ry taste is equivalent to another sense; and 
it is certainly an exhaustless source of plea- 
sure, and a potent auxiliary to the princi- 
ples of religion and virtue. The girl who 
can cheerfully relieve the tedium of domes- 
tic occurrences by a well chosen volume, 
will escape from many of the lollies and in- 
discretions to which those are liable who 
have no resource but in dissipated or gos- 
sipping parties; and in ill health or declining 
years, she will not be compelled to depend 
upon the charitable visits of her acquain- 
tances to enliven her spirits with all the chit- 
chat of the day, or to make up a party for 
the card table. Possessing the means of in- 
dependent amusement, the lover of books 
will generally visit others, or be visited her- 
self from affection and esteem, and her 
home wiH be secured from dullness, by a 
mind irradiated, refreshed, invigorated, and 
polished by useful and elegant information. 
If any adverse occurrence shall interrupt 
serenity, the library will supply a bal- 
sam of efficacy to relax the irritated feelings, 
►etter sentiments will be called up to sub- 
them; and it decided preference for all 
thai is amiable and excellent will mark her 
conduc who daily consults the ablest 
guid< 

8dme professions abound in leisure hours, 
; all tne occupations of a gentleman ad 



233 

mit of frequent relaxations. The pen, the 
pencil, and musical instruments may fill up 
part of these in a very agreeable manner, 
but a few successive rainy days will render 
such employments tiresome; and if the 
youth has not cultivated intellectual refine- 
ments he will fly to frivolous or dangerous 
society to beguile the lagging minutes. The 
parent who has formed a literary taste in 
her family, essentially promotes their hap* 
piness, and provides for their safety; as in 
exploring the treasures of intelligence and 
rational entertainment, they will find many 
powerful motives to excite and to sustain 
them to the discharge of every duty. We 
strongly disapprove of indiscriminate novel 
reading, not only on account of the dubious 
tendency of many of these productions, but* 
as a waste of time; yet we prefer the mania 
tor hastily skimming over pages, before a 
strong desire for expensive dress and com- 
pany, or an appetite for low anecdote, or an 
infatuation for gambling But all these faults 
are to be avoided; and if by social reading 
and refined conversation a young person has 
learnt in some degree to appreciate works of 
real merit, the value of a fleeting day will be 
too well understood to consume it in the 
perusal of unedifying adventures. 

The most watchful superintendance can- 
not prevent improper reading, unless the pu- 
U2 



234 

pilis restrained by uprightness and delicacy; 
but the heart that has been purified and ex- 
alted by attention to moral truths, will be 
withheld by its own principles from giving 
way to prurient curiosity, and tyill feel that 
ihere is as much criminality in looking into 
an unsanctioned volume as in any other spe- 
cies of fraud or dishonesty. We are not 
however to prohibit particular works, but to 
maintain a general rule that all books are 
to undergo the ordeal of parental inspection 
before time is thrown away on the perusal. 
We would have our daughters to dislike 
padding, and our sons to be superior to the 
allurements of dissipation. A taste for use- 
ful employment, and for literary entertain- 
ments, is the surest fund for solidity of judg- 
ment; and those pure affections that delight 
in the ties formed by nature and Provi- 
dence to sweeten retirement, are evgr most 

powerfully felt by cultivated minds 

When home has been gilded in early life by 

tranquil and sincere enjoyments that sooth 

the feelings and satisfy and improve the un- 

lerstanding, domestic scenes will be prefer- 

ed btfdre all the blandishments of pleasure 

and the enchantments of gaiety; but the seat 

of dul)neB9 and painful restraint will be for 

, , disliked — tender recollections and daily 

felicity endear the spot * where youth's free 

-nirit innocently gay" has been mellow- 



235 

edand matured to more sober and self de- 
rived satisfactions; and were there no other 
ill consequence in austerity than in giving 
habitual disgust to home, it ought to make 
parents extremely cautious never to let the 
friend be lost in the monitor. 

In all our management of children and 
young persons, our chief object must be the 
introduction of sentiments that are friendly 
to virtue and happiness Opinions that con- 
duce not to sweeten the intercourse of do- 
mestic and social life, and excite to useful 
exertion, may furnish ingenious amusement, 
but they possess no real value. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

IT n not according to our ambitious 
hopes or wishes, bu* in conformity to their 
probable prospects that we must educate 
our children So far as circumstances al- 
low, they ought to participate in the accom- 
plishments, and be prepared to enter into 
the refinements of life: but our tenderness 
as well as our prudence should qualify them 
to practise the more humble, but always va- 
luable domestic arts. A young lady who 
makes up and repairs her own attire, who 
has acquainted herself with every particu- 
lar circumstance of a servant's duty, and 



236 

takes an active concern in preventing waste 
or carelessness, will be as respectable and as 
useful in her father's family as in the conju- 
gal state; and her excellence in managing 
her own household will be conspicuous. If 
she remain in celibacy she cannot be regard- 
ed as an insignificant member of the com- 
munity; and wherever she may visit or re- 
side, her opinion and advice will be received 
with deference. 

She who never indulges in any expen- 
ses but such as her own accurate calcula- 
tions assure her are moderate and suitable, 
will always maintain independence, and 
though it may be necessary for her to en- 
gage in the actual preparation of cookery 
and confectionary, she will retain the char- 
acteristics of a gentlewoman by personal 
neatness and the elegant precision of her per- 
formances. 

She who without overlooking petty de- 
tails, occupies herself invariably in consis- 
tent and distinct arrangements, will com- 
bine frugality with dignity and grace; she is 
fitted either to encounter unfortunate rever- 
ses, or to adorn an exalted sphere: for if do- 
mesiics are not judiciously chosen, and pro- 
perly called to account in their several 
duties and disbursements, even an immense 
fortune can hardly escape incumberance. 
The comfort and interest of the most opu- 



237 

lent must be ensured by the steady restric- 
tions of a superior, whose taste will give 
effect to mag ifkence by introducing order 
and symmetry into all the parts, still re- 
trenching every superfluous cost and decor- 
ation. When domestic economy is viewed 
in this light, the proudest fair one will not 
disdain to rank it amongst her accomplish- 
ments. 

We have stated some strong objections 
against sending girls to town under the go- 
vernment of a servant, but the most weighty 
of all is, that this absence will deprive them 
of early acquaintance with housekeeping, 
the most essential acquirement for persons of 
small fortune. The practice ought to com- 
mence between the age of nine and eleven 
years; and having all their days received 
lively predilections in favour of usefulness, 
they will eagerly prepare for it. It depends 
on parents to make their daughters value 
certain qualifications as their most desirable 
distinctions, but they imbibe very opposite no 
tions if they be under the care of a domestic 
who is neither able nor inclined to take any 
trouble about their opinions. Elegant at- 
tainments do not preclude the most exact 
attention to economy, nor even the hum- 
blest offices of housewifery. Improved un- 
derstanding and taste are favourable to in- 
dustry and neatness; and the s;irl who is 



238 

slovenly in her person is seldom a good ma- 
nager in her house. Essential and useful ac- 
quirements ought no doubt to be preferred 
before all that are merely ornamental; but 
there is no incompatibility. Let children be- 
gin early, and be induced to voluntary ex- 
ertion. Let reading, writing, arithmetic, and 
needle work be held up to them not only 
as the most necessary, but also as the most 
creditable studies. Accomplishments in two 
or three years may be introduced as a re- 
ward for proficiency in their other attempts, 
as they are often the best dependance of fe- 
males who are but slenderly provided for, 
affording pecuniary resources and cheering 
amusement in a single state; and they also 
enable a mother who cannot conveniently 
apply to hired instructions, to give her chil- 
dren a liberal education. In the progress of 
this work we have never lost sight of fur- 
nishing helps to the parent who takes upon 
herself this pleasing duty: and we shall now 
lay before her a simple system which has 
formed very notable, though unostentatious 
managers. In large families let the girls be 
allowed week about to accompany their mo- 
ther in all her domestic superintendence, and 
the exercise thus afforded will prevent the 
ill effects of sedentary employment in the 
course of education. It will mature the 
judgment* and restrain volatility to h 



239 

some charge. The best remedy for giddiness 
will always be found in employments that 
require foresight, and give a child the hap- 
piness of deserving approbation. The most 
painful endeavours of a mother for teaching 
these homely duties may be soon repaid in 
important services. We knew a girl not 
twelve years old who took care of an en- 
feebled mother, a bed-ridden father, and 
three little sisters, besides regulating all the 
family affairs. We knew another about the 
same age, who had not even the assistance 
of maternal advice, during several months, 
who conducted a numerous family in the 
absence of her parent. These young persons 
were in no respect extraordinary for their 
abilities, but they had timely and careful 
instructions, with which advantage many 
of the same age might be made equally 
useful. By acting under the immediate di- 
rection of her parent, a little girl will learn 
the most complete and expeditious manner 
of doing any thing, and servants will have no 
opportunity ot tampering with her integrity. 
The family expenditure should be exact- 
ly recorded by the young house-keeper to 
show her the importance of moderation and 
care, and to improve her in arithmetic. 
Whatever employment or charge the chil- 
dren may have, they must not be discoura- 
ged, nor too much required of them; nor 



240 

should they be severely reprimanded for 
mistakes or omissions. To anticipate wis- 
dom in all possible directions, and to extend 
its ramifications to evey point that may be 
necessary, is the perfect whole we must seek 
to form in education. Competent skill in 
the management of a family, and in the care 
of children is far more essential than all the 
elegant arts on which so much time, ex- 
pense, and anxiety are bestowed; and were 
it not a subject too serious, and even melan- 
choly, we might find it ludicrous to see a 
mother more anxious about the ornament 
of a few years, than that species of know- 
ledge which must constitute her child's fu- 
ture comfort, make her respectable and use- 
ful, and protect her from the mortifying con 
sciousness of lying at the mercy of servile 
officiousness, presumption, or unfaithfulness. 

Since the prevention of any inconveni- 
ence is the sole aim of our unadorned pages, 
we hope it is not much beneath didactic 
dignity to remind parents that young la- 
dies sometimes appear to sad disadvantage 
through incapacity to assist in doing the 
honours oi' their fathers table, and it is only 
* by early habits they can acquit themselves 
in this or in any other performance with 
neatness and ea9e. 

To those who may at first sight contemn 
those • ' beg leave • offer the 



241 

following anecdote: — W hen the Princess oi 
Hesse Darmstadt was invited to bring her 
daughters to the Court of the Empress Anne 
of Russia, it was with the hope that one of 
them might be the wife of her son, the ill- 
fated Peter. The Czarina observed the 
young princesses from a window as they 
alighted from their coach. " Ah !" said she, 
"the second shall be the wife of my son, she 
has alighted with dignity and grace, but the 
eldest made a false step, and the youngest 
leaped out precipitately." Some acute rea- 
soner may draw inferences from the carving 
of a chicken, or the division of pastry. 

No part oteducation is^o valuable as that 
which prepares young people to act with 
promptitude and decision in common af- 
fairs. Innumerable errors and misfortunes 
might be avoided by a habit of thinking and 
acting for themselves, subject always to the 
advice and controul of their parents This 
foresight and reflection might be further im- 
proved by some knowledge of their father's 
transactions and their mother's household 
management. Ignorance of country con- 
cerns, and of settlements with agents and 
workmen may be a great inconvenience to 
ladies, who by inheritance or marriage are 
entrusted with the care of an estate. 

A sensible man will prize in his wife the 
capacity of acting as his unassuming coun 
w 



242 

sellor; and if he should be called on the 
service of his country, disabled by ill health, 
or bidding adieu to worldly objects, he will 
be consoied by knowing that the remaining 
parent of his family has the power of doing 
them full justice. Superior strength of mind 
has qualified many mothers to acquit them- 
selves admirably in such circumstances; but 
previous instruction would have made the 
charge less burdensome. It cannot be suppo- 
sed that young ladies are to study these mat- 
ters with the same accuracy as men of busi- 
ness; but in the course of conversation with 
judicious parents, much may be imparted of 
inestimable utility in future life. Whatever 
views young men may adopt, such intelli- 
gence ought to be treasured up in their me- 
mory, and they ought to be allowed an 
actual share in conducting their father's af- 
fairs. 

Though the information and practice so 
obtained should not prove of immediate Ser- 
vice, it may in the course of years come op- 
portunely to recollection; and in the mean 
time by filling up leisure hours, and enga- 
ging attention, the occupation is in itself an 
antidote against licentious follies. Youths 
who are treated as companions by a wise 
and communicative father, are seldom ad- 
dicted to degrading vices. They will even 
forego many indulgences to avoid displea- 



243 

sing him, or giving him pain; and as they 
can teli all their schemes and wishes to their 
liberal minded mentor, he may unmask a 
lurking evil, or warn them from many 
involvements. 

There are few young people so void 'of 
sense as not to avail themselves of parental 
experience, if not discouraged by asperity. 
Freedom must begin on the part of the su 
perior If you would have your child or pu 
pil unbosom his thoughts to you his affiance 
must be invited by kindness and condescen 
si on* 

In appearing before the public under the 
true designation, the terrors of female au- 
thorship are abated, in recollecting that the 
substance of what is now presented was ho- 
noured with the approbation of the editors 
of the periodical paper called the "Bee," 
many years ago. When sent to these gen- 
tlemen,, under the signature of E. T. Ob- 
scure, they were pleased to mention it in 
terms far exceeding the expectations of the 
writer; and we hope the additions made 
since that time are useful improvements. — 
All that treats of the prevention and cure of 
distempers has been sanctioned by high au- 
thority, besides being the practice of an able 
and successful professional character. He 
was at much pains to qualify the mothers of 
his infantile patients to act in cases of slight 



244 

indisposition; and they applied to him with 
far greater readiness and confidence than if 
he had left their minds in total ignorance, to 
be misled Dy gossiping retailers of marvel- 
lous remedies. 

Our sketches are now near the conclu- 
sion, and whatever imperfection may be im- 
puted th Oiigh inelegance of style or the ab- 
sence of amusing variety, and the higher 
graces of composition, we plead the nega- 
tive merit of good intentions. We fondly 
hope an outline of the means that have 
largely contributed to form useful and wor- 
thy members of society may be as accepta- 
ble to the heads of a rising family, as the 
most elaborate and approved disquisitions 
on culinary affairs. This essay to prove our 
principles by the test of public opinion is 
but the introduction to more minute details: 
and since the most enlightened and pene- 
trating investigators of moral and intellec- 
tual science are convinced there are frequent 
and fatal errors committed in directing the 
first operations of the human mind, it is the 
duty of all who believe thev can contribute 

i a mite to the advancement of this 
to come forward with their ex- 
perience. Theory alone has never produ- 
ced valuable improvements; and it is impos- 

» for fhe most learned and penetrating 
author to form a just idea of the man; 



245 

ment of infancy without a series of actual 
and very attentive observations. No un- 
dertaking can surpass this in difficulty or in 
magnitude; and really to understand in 
\y Jiat manner we may "fix the generous pur- 
pose in the glowing heart " and produce the 
best state of body and mind, demands not 
only to be under the same roof, but to live 
by day and night in the immediate presence 
of many children. 

It is not by fortuitous combinations that 
unbroken cheerfulness, fearless indepen- 
dence, and dutiful submission, can have due 
preponderance in the heart of a child; and 
those dispositions happily tempered, and 
equally blended, are of the highest benefit 
in all conditions individually and collective- 
ly. No means suggested by the inventive 
resources of mankind can render a nation 
prosperous, but the wide diffusion of liberal 
sentiments, inspired and confirmed by reli- 
gious principlee. It is by intellectual educa- 
tion enlarging the reason that young persons 
are brought to feel the true grounds of pa- 
rental and moral authority; and the exam- 
ple of each individual affects others by in- 
fluen^e neither slight nor evanescent, espe- 
cially in family connexions. Imprudence 
and wickedness are generally the inheri- 
tance of those who are descended from 
Worthless parents, and the wise and good 
w2 



2 46 

lently bequeath their virtues to their 
children. What a powerful inducement to 
undergo the labour, the hazard and the 
criticism that may attend an attempt such 
as ours! The system of moderation and 
tenderness we have recommended would 
render the ties of parent and child the inva- 
riable comforts of life. Injunctions and re- 
straints are necessary in youth; but they 
may have full effect without trenching on 
rhe harmless liberty, or invading the com- 
forts of any period of tuition. Judicious 
coercion, softened by endearment, will al- 
ways find returns of obedience; and no un- 
gracious claims to freedom will ever oppose 
parental advice bestowed with mildness: 
but negligence, hard usage, or inconsiderate 
license, vitiates the- heart, cramps and ex- 
tenuates the mental powers, and unamiable 
propensities habitually predominating arc 
made to embitter the declining years of a 
father or mother, without any deliberate 
design of unfilial conduct. We hope the 

[am of our discussions cannot give of 
We are solicitous to convince in 

rienced superintendants of infancy and 
youth, that innumerable preventive can 
and small attentions are indispensable in 
good habits. Yft have endeavour- 
ed al i pint out the most essential par- 
am! to furnish some criterion 1\\ 



247 

which parents and governesses may judge 
how far their own management is calculat- 
ed for these valuable ends. With this view 
we have animadverted on errors at the haz- 
ard of appearing to descend too low, and of 
being too minute and scrupulous; but much 
misery may be prevented by successive and 
seemingly trivial effoits to impress the ten- 
der mind with clearly defined perceptions 
of right and wrong, and by an impartial in- 
quisition of our proceedings with respect to 
our children. By correcting our own errors, 
and discovering omissions before they 
could produce inconvenience, the heart and 
understanding of our charge may be duly 
prepared to give all diligence in the lighter 
acquirements and embellishments that taste 
or fashion might prescribe The most splen- 
did talents, the most brilliant accomplish- 
ments, and the most fascinating graces, owe 
their brightest lustre to virtuous and amia- 
ble qualities, which even as es^e* tiais in the 
ait of pleasing, deserve unremitting atten- 
tion from all who are desirous to bestow a 
finished education on their children. 

But there are higher and nobler induce- 
ments to cultivate the most sublime facul 
ties of a rational nature This is only the 
infancy of our being. After going through 
all the stages of sublunary existence; the 
fruit is unto life eternal; and on the seed 



248 

now sown depends the final produce of 
felicity in a state that shall never end. Infal- 
lible knowledge and unerring veracity have 
assured us, that as the treefalleth so must it 
lie: an awful warning to all those who are 
employed in forming plants of everlasting 
growth, Let the guardians of infancy and 
youth lay it seriously to heart, and let it be 
their first, their most fervent desire to make 
their pupils faithful and abounding in the 
work of the Lord, knowing that their labour 
shall not be in vain in the Lord. 

The following simple story is subjoined 
in illustration of the maxims we have 
sought to inculcate, and as a specimen of 
the anecdotes of education, which we in- 
tend to publish at a future period, if the 
present work shalt meet with some appro- 
bation: — 

Eliza and Sophia were natives of the 
South of Scotland. Eliza's countenance 
owed its charm more to expression than 
regularity ot features. Sophia's face and 
form displayed the most beauteous perfec- 
tion of symmetry and elegance. Klizu was 
little noticed except in her own family, 
where she was loved and valued 88 the 
hourly dispenser of benefits, Sophia's fame 
for loveliness and accomplishment* had ob- 
tained* wide celebrity. Kliza had never 
known idleness. Sophia had hardly an idea 



249 

of occupation Eliza was the pride and bless- 
ing of her parents — bnt they had never 
gratified one wish which the most unbend- 
ing prudence could disapprove, nor had any 
foible escaped their judicious but gentle ani- 
madversion. Sophia placed much of her 
happiness in obtaining all her wishes or fan- 
cies; and if she committed no blunder in ad- 
justing hd . ress, or displaying her acquisi- 
tions, her doating aunt was all compliance 
and encomium. Eliza was the active friend 
and almost the servant of numbers: Sophia 
was waited on by two obsequious attend- 
ants, in the person of her aunt's Abigail and 
her own; and even the old lady would assist 
in disposing the ornaments which with la- 
vish fondness she bestowed on the thought- 
less votary of fashion. How many young 
ladies will envy Sophia! how few would 
exchange situations with Eliza! A very few 
years will prove whether judicious restraint 
and beneficial employment, or indiscrimi- 
nate indulgence be most conducive to per- 
manent happiness. 

Eliza was but nineteen years oT age when 
she became the wife of Mr. Sutton, a cou- 
sin of Sophia's He w r as a gentleman of a 
large but encumbered estate. Several oi 
his acquaintances blamed him for marrying 
a girl without fortune; but he and his mo- 
ther were satisfied that the most valuable 



250 

dowry is an amiable disposition and habi- 
tual prudence. Sophia's indulgent aunt was 
no more, and had bequeathed her property 
equally between that young lady and her 
nephew, Mr. Sutton, about six months pre* 
vious to his union with Eliza That happy 
pair settled in London, where the abilities 
of the young pleader promised success at 
the English bar. They offered Sophia an 
apartment in their house. Since her aunt's 
decease she had lived with Mr. Sutton's 
mother, and was heartily wearied of retire- 
ment; and as she was persuaded the same 
dull round of wisdom and industry would 
prevail in her cousin's family, she preferred 
boarding with an old acquaintance subser- 
vient to her will. She could not, however, 
quite decline visiting her relation and guar- 
dian, and in a few months she was a volun- 
tary guest. Mr. Dalziel, a neighbour of 
Eliza's father, had come to town upon busi- 
ness. He was deeply smitten by Sophia's 
dazzling attractions, and it soon appeared 
she was not insensibl is fine person and 

engaging manners. Of his more solid merits 
she was unfit to judge, but they wen abun- 
dant; and he had a free though not extensive 
fn a short time he told Mr. Button 
that he had obtained Sophia* sent to be- 
ne the happiest of men. Mr. Sutton as- 
I him he earnestly wished to p o\ 



251 

his felicity, but that before he gave a decisive 
reply he must talk to Sophia He waited 
upon her, and entreated she might consider 
that five hundred a-year, and the interest oi 
her twenty thousand pounds, would be in- 
sufficient "for the style of living to which 
she had been accustomed. He added, that 
Dalziel was a worthy and sensible young 
man, whose independent spirit would abhor 
the idea of living beyond his income; and 
that he feared he would be under the ne- 
cessity of thwarting her in a manner she 
would not submit to, or, by yielding up his 
better judgment, incur certain ruin. So- 
phia had never been used to reason. Her 
aunt had indeed controlled her so far as to 
extort attention to every showy branch of 
education, but she had governed her infan- 
cy by mere force; and the entire freedom 
she enjoyed since her demise, made Sophia 
tenacious even in trifles. In short she mar- 
ried Mr. Dalziel, and they set out enraptur- 
ed for South Vale. Mr. and Mrs. Sutton 
soon followed to pass the vacation at Ash- 
mount, a small place to which Eliza was 
partial as it lay contiguous to her paternal 
home. South Vale was but a few miles 
distant, and thither Mr. Sutton and his 
wife went to pay their respects. Mr. and 
Mrs. Dalziel -were finishing a very late 
breakfast, and Mrs. Sutton observed, with 



252 

inexpressible concern, that Sophia's dress? 
and every appendage of her establishment? 
bore glaring marks of profusion, careless- 
ness, and mismanagement. She led the way 
to her own bed-room, to show the more ex- 
perienced matron some new furniture — 
Throwing a heap of clothes oflftwo chairs, 
she sat down, and after sitting a few mi- 
nutes, as if lost in thought, exclaimed, "Oh ! 
what a loss it is to have neither house-keep- 
er nor waiting maid. Dalziel assures me 
that since I must have a carriage and four, 
we must submit to other privations — for my 
part I know nothing of what he calls cal- 
culation, and must leave all to himself,, 
though I suspect he denies me attendants, 
to force me to learn economy; and I con- 
fess / do now wish I had paid some atten- 
tion to arithmetic, and to that plaguing 
thing called house-keeping. I have had 
hardly time to breathe since I came here — 
Oh ! for some of the hours I spent lounging 
on the sofa lust year ! I am ready to qi ar- 
rel nith myself for marrying Dalziel, hand- 
some, good, and adoring though he be." 

44 And Mrs. Dalziel, w interrupted 31 r 
Sutton, fcfc lrt me beg you will not fdr a mo- 
ment allow yourself to think in this man- 
ner." I wcvt'v took the pains to wippreee 
any thought," replied Mrs. Dalziel, "and I 
cannot bi that if I < ] or happiness, 



2bS 
I would have been the wife of a i idiei 



man." 



* You may yet be happy " said Mrs. Sut- 
ton, "if you will but determine to suit your 
wishes and expenses to your fortune. Mr. 
Dalziel's income, though not large, is suffi- 
cient for all the comforts and many of the 
elegancies of life if laid out with economy . r 

" But of that," said Mrs. Dalziel, starting 
up with a look of unutterable discompo- 
sure, "of that I know nothing — am I to go 
to school again ? Will you, dear Mrs. 
Sutton, take me as an apprentice, to house 
keeping ?" "That half playful, half sor- 
rowful countenance and manner makes me 
doubtful how I should reply," said Mrs. 
Sutton 

" Oh! don't reply with that sad look," 
said Mrs Dalziel "Would you th\ ovv me 
into horrors before my honey mo\ n is out? 
It is inevitable — I have been a fool — I um 
a fool — and must suffer. What a look that 
is ! you pierce me to the heart." 

" My dear Mrs. Dalziel, these tears, and 
this sense of inconvenience may produce 
happy effects. Allow an older matron than 
yourself to give some very simple rules to 
assist your management First, remember 
the succinct, but excellent maxims in the 
Co tagers of Glenburnie: < Do every thing 
in its own time, keep every thing in its own 
x 



place, and have every thing for its Own use/ 
To these I would add, ' Defer not till to- 
morrow what may be done to-day,' and re- 
member that upon the care and economy 
of each hour, depend the comfort of days, 
of years, and of a whole life time. If to com- 
plete these you recollect every night the pro- 
ceedings of the day, and endeavour to rec- 
tify oversights or mistakes the ensuing day, 
you may be yet as notable in housewifery 
as you have been conspicuous for beauty 
and accomplishments." 

"I have neither patience nor steadiness to 
act upon such a plan," said Mrs Dalziel, u but 
Edmund has sense, and he will assist me." 

"He has sense and good nature," said 
Mrs. Sutton; "but have you considered the 
consequences of adding a heavy weight to 
his other complicated concerns? or the im- 
propriety of troubling him with a charge so 
unsuitable? Believe me, it is dangerous to 
appear to a husband quite incapable of con- 
ducting our own department. Mr. Dalziel, 
with all his candour, will hardly perceive 
your gradual improvement. How fondly 
do I revere (he memory of my good mo- 
tber who taught me to perform the duty of a 
housekeeper! and if ever I have a daughter, 
shall be i\w most prominent part of her 

i, cation." 

"But my good aunt" said Mrs. Dalziel, 

\ ho was all I knew as a parent, provulH 



255 

me with a servant to do every thing for me. 
Triie^ that is past, and leaves not one bene- 
ficial trace behind, but the advantage of 
your instruction remains, and will always 
procure you comforts. But surely your 
youth was very dull and dreary. 5 ' 

" A mind that has been early taught to 
regulate its own feelings," said Mrs. Sut- 
tofl, "is never unhappy; you know the vi- 
vacity of my disposition; it was bounded, 
but not suppressed by my honoured parents; 
austerity and rigour I never knew: but to 
what is commonly termed indulgence I was 
equally a stranger. Ever since memory can 
restore one image, I have been learning some- 
thing, which even now I find beneficial, and 
I cannot recollect the hour which did not 
bring with it some unavoidable employment. 
This ceaseless occupation or activity has 
braced my constitution of mind and body. 
Would it not be a noble effort to do for 
yourself the service my excellent father and 
mother performed for me. I beg you may 
take it under consideration." 

u Consideration is hateful," interrupted Mrs, 
Dalziel; "it condemns me; how could I who 
knew not how to manage an honest man's 
family undertake it? Alas! my mind has been 
enervated by false refinement. When I walk 
out with Dalziel I am startled by the rust- 
ling of a leaf, in case it mav be some of 



Z56 

my tormentors coming to ask what ihtij 
are to do. I am a termagant in the kitchen, 
and scold the maids because I am diss 
fied with myself. It is wretched folly to have 
spent six or seven years in diverting myself, 

out learning one particular to save mc 
from misery as long as I live." At this mo- 
ment a servant came to say Mrs. Sutton was 
wanted. On rising she saw her carriage at 
the door, and was immediitely alarmed for 
her father's health. Since her mother's death 
he has been declining daily, and on rejoining 
her husband in the parlour, he informed her 
in the most tender manner that their revered 
parent was struck by the palsy. The ties that 
bound Mr. and Mrs. Sutton to Ashmont 
were in a few weeks dissolved; but in the 
multiplicity of their own concerns Mrs. 
Dalziel was not forgotten. Mrs. Sutton 
wrote to her, recapitulating her advice, and 
in the most delicate terms urging her atten- 
tion to them. She received a cold and for- 
mal reply The correspondence dropped; 
I years r< •: Mr Sutton some 

- beard from Mr. Dalziel on busin . 

but no othe -pondence took place. 

3! he mother of a numer- 

>m she educated with unre- 

mittii One evening as she and her 

unded by Ibis indu 

but happy groupe, a knock at the door 



257 

announced visitors; the hour was unusual, 
but a kind reception was ever ready for 
their friends; a squallid figure entered, fol- 
lowed by six children, and accompanied by 
a gentleman who seemed with difficulty to 
maintain his equilibrium. " Mrs. Dalziel!" 
said Mrs. Sutton with astonishment; "and 
her besotted husband and unruly brats," re- 
joined Mrs. Dalziel. " That's unfair," inter- 
rupted Dalziel. " Drive a man to the tavern 
and then unbraidhim for taking some wine; 
or let weeds spring up and abuse the soil 
for affording no better produce." Mrs. Dal- 
ziel, in great heat, was going to reply; but 
Mrs. Sutton gently drew her from the par- 
lour to her own room, where she had hard- 
ly been seated, when with a flood of tears 
she exclaimed, u Oh! OhI Dalziel spoke 
too true! I knew he spoke truth, yet I can- 
not brook reproaches, even when provoked 
by myself. Spoiling and wasting, without 
show or comfort in my family, the expendi- 
ture every year far exceeded our income;, 
and as Dalziel is determined to do full jus- 
tice to his creditors, we are come hither to 
dispose of the estate. Nor is this my worst 
calamity. Deprived of all that could render 
home desirable, my poor Dalziel betook 
himself to the tavern to pass away a little 
time; but, alas! that relaxation ha^ become 
necessary to him, and he seldom goes sober 
*2 



258 

to bed. And my children! my unhappy, ne- 
glected children! unprincipled, uneducated 
yet bold and forward, what is to be expected 
from them? I am the bane of my dearest 
connexions; and without committing one 
atrocious deed I am beset with horrors. I 
have wasted my life in pursuit of visionary 
happiness, and with all the means of solid 
and substantial good within my reach, I am, 
by perverting their use, sunk into wretched- 
ness and contempt. Let no young woman 
hereafter rest satisfied in ignorance of do- 
mestic economy; and let no mother deceive 
herself by believing that it is kindness to 
exempt her girls from the exertions required 
in gaining a practical knowledge of this 
most valuable attainment. But my dear, 
dear Mrs. Sutton, I distress you. I disre- 
garded your wholesome counsel, and shall I 
i ave in your presence, giving vent to agonies 
I deserve to feel?" 

Mrs. Sutton with the utmost delicacy 

md tenderness endeavoured to appease the 

ortures endured by this conscience-stricken 

i nei-; and to convince her it was yet pos- 

mpt atonement for the evils she 

toned. Meanwhile Mr. Sutton 

WDgpi gpfcdited thr measures for arran- 

. j irtYirs of his unhappy 

friend; but the greatest difficulty still remaiit- 

nubial harmony, and to 



259 

excite mutual co-operation in leading the 
children to amendment. It is needless to re- 
peat discussions that during several days 
related chiefly to peculiar grievances. Mr. 
Dalziel was more passive than his wife, 
who had never before used any effort to 
subdue her self-will: at length embracing 
Mrs. Sutton, she vehemently besought her 
to forgive her obstinacy and perverseness. 
u Wipe away these sympathetic tears, my 
dearest monitress," said she, "you might 
have saved yourself all this trouble by 
soothing me with common place hollow 
consolations. Mid palliating my offences" 
"God forbid! I should so far mislead you," 
replied Mrs Sutton. " The ingenuous 
frankness with which in many instances 
you have accused yourself, admits a well 
grounded hope of your retrieving these er- 
rors. The revei sion of your fortune, with 
Mr. DalziePs certain gains, will afford 
a clear income, larger than my husband 
and I possessed during some of the first 
years of our blessed union. Our enjoy- 
ments were limited to domestic and intel- 
lectual resources, and we never regretted 
the necessity of foregoing the gratifications 
of vanity or luxurious indulgence. Mr Sut- 
ton has secured constant employment for 
Mr DalziePs fine abilities, which occupa- 
tion, with the influence of vigilant friend- 



260 

ship, may wean him from the habits we de- 
plore. To preserve your infant children 
from improper examples they shall be our 
inmates, till regular attendance at school, 
and careful instruction at home, shall have 
corrected the foibles of their elder brothers 
and sisters." « Most generous of benefactres- 
ses," said Mrs Dalziel, "what a wretch 
am I to have resisted your gentle, but im- 
pressive remonstrances! I will curb my selfish 
passions, and strive to become all I ought 
to be; but, alas! though I have been nine 
times a mother, I know little of the actual 
performances that ought to accompany a 
name so sacred. The fashion of the day did 
indeed induce me to read every new publi- 
cation on the subject; but I found none of 
them sufficiently explicit in regard to the 
treatment of early infancy. The details ne- 
cessary in imparting a little knowledge to 
utter ignorance can hardly be conceived by 
well informed minds; yet unless they keep 
that essential consideration in view, the in- 
telligence they furnish must be very incom- 
plete." fc - Perhaps," said Mrs. Button, "the 
precepts of a matron who wrote professedly 
for the inexperienced i rent, may he of 
use to you but I must promise, you 
will find in them no entertainment, no gla- 
res nothing but plain utility n "Fasti- 
diousness would brcriminal in me," replied 



261 

Mrs. Dalziel, "who have felt the dire effects 
of incapacity id superintending my babes. 
Disgusted by committing many palpable 
mistakes. I gave i-p the charge to their nurse. 
Henceforward I snail not take refuge in 
stilling reflection, but I will labour to ac- 
qu nit myself both with the theory and prac- 
tice of tuition. Miss Edgeworth, like Socra- 
tes, has brought wisdom from 'heights su- 
blime,' to dwell familiarly with those who 
are most in want of instruction; yet, after 
perusing her lively and sensible communica- 
tions there were many particulars still unex- 
plained to a novice like me. 5 ' "This simple 
book of receipts and aphorisms will probably 
supply some of these,*' said Mrs. Sutton, 
'•but to give your ideas due expansion, ac- 
curacy and elevation, you must again and 
again have recourse to 'Practical Education* 
and other books, by the same ingenious 
authors; and you must also frequently con* 
suit the luminous pages of a More, a Hamil- 
ton, a West, a Barbauld, and others, who 
have provided the ablest assistance for their 
sex in the discharge of maternal duties. As 
for the Nursery Guide I have ventured to 
mention, I refer you to it merely for elemen- 
tary lessons; and the writer aspires only to 
obtain a place near the Dyches and Dil- 
worths id some avenue to the Republic of 
Letter- " 



APPENDIX. 

Many benevolent persons being solicitous to pro- 
mote the success of Vaccine Inoculation, the 
following address, which was published in the 
Inverness Journal, is reprinted, to furnish ar- 
guments for those who may not have deeply- 
considered the subject, and are yet desirous to 
contribute their influence in persuading all clas- 
ses of people to give their infants the benefit of 
that invaluable discovery. 

WHATEVER difference may be in the 
rank, riches, talents, or education of indivi- 
duals, one common object engages their at- 
tention the pursuit of happiness; and if 

sought in sincere endeavours to perform 
every duty in the best manner, few would 
have so much cause to lament a disappoint* 
ment in obtaining peace and comfort; but 
duties cannot be fulfilled if they are not well 
understood, and many points must be deter- 
mined by considering a variety of circum- 
stances. Blessed be God! the great rules of 
life that teach what we owe to our Almighty 
Creator, to our neighbour, and to ourselves, 
may be fully comprehended by the meanest 
and most destitute inhabitant of the world; 
for if he cannot read the words of eter- 
nal life, profitable for this life and for that 
which is to come, he may hear them expound 



264 

ed and enforced at least one day in every seven 
It is not upon religion and morality I mean 
to address you, my friends, though I may 
employ the sacred principles to give weight 
to .the dictates of worldly wisdom The 
greatest and wisest man America could boast 
did not think it beneath his care to inform 
his fellow citizens in regard to the manage- 
ment of their pecuniary affairs. Children are 
truly said to be the poor man's riches, and 
the cordial of his hopes. When the trades- 
man or labourer comes home at night and 
beholds the smiling innocents for whom he 
has been toiling, the fatigue is forgotten, and 
in the little arms extended to embrace him 
he foresees the staff of his age. Never did a 
large and dutiful family allow the parents to 
feel penury; but, alas! how many infants are 
born into the world who sink into the grave 
at an early period. It is an undoubted fact that 
one- third do not survive the first month, and 
little more than half of those who have glad 
dened a mother's heart are spared to attain 
man's estate. Of those that are cut off vast 
numbers suffer by mismanagement, and 
in >re particularly \>y neglecting to have them 
inoculated at an early period. Let meintreat 
you to enquire, my friends, of the persons 
on whose knowledge and veracity you can 
, and you will find that of patients 
who ha inoculated, only one dies in 



263 

five hundred, whilst in the natural small 
pox one person out of everj six who take 
the disease, either loses his life or his sight, 
and even of those that recover, not one es 
capes torturing pain and severe sickness I 
need not describe the loathsome cruel dis- 
temper; alas! you are all too well acquainted 
with it; but I beseech you to compare your 
child struggling with a violent fever, at least 
during fourteen days, with his whole body 
full of sores most dreadfully inflamed! com- 
pare these miseries to the little one in the 
cow pox There is no mark on his skin, 
except the little wound made by the lancet, 
and he has neither fever nor sickness. A. 
child of a gross habit may be sick for some 
hours, but a common cold would disorder 
him more severely. If your hahes could 
know the torments from which it is in your 
power to save them, on their bended knees, 
with uplifted hands and streaming eyes, they 
would implore you to have mercy on them, 
and let them be inoculated within the se- 
cond months of their life, to prevent all risk 
of infection to them, and most afflicting 
trouble to yourselves The small-pox will 
perhaps seize them at the most inconvenient 
time, but you can choose the day and the 
very hour for inoculation; and let me assure 
you, if you exactly follow the Doctor's ad- 
vice, the cow-pox will incommode your 
family Jess than a common blister vomit, 
v 



260 

How different is the small pox! Suppose 
you have three or four children, crowded 
into a small house, and cannot give each a 
separate bed, how deplorable must be their 
distress, laid two in a bed, with scarce a bit 
of skin on their bodies, paining each other 
by the least movement. \Yhat night-watch- 
ing, what anxiety, what fatigue and sorrow 
must be your portion ! all business neglect- 
ed, and more money laid out on account of 
one child than would have paid for inocu- 
lating twenty. How many weeks these sad 
circumstances may continue must be uncer- 
tain, but if your children sicken one after 
another, months may pass in that dreary 
way. Some of your children blind, some 
laid in the cold earth — and you will upbraid 
yourself with losing your child's life or 
sight, to save a few shillings T — nor are these 
shillings saved; sickness and burial will cost 
more than would pay the Doctor for ten 
families, and one blind child is a burthen 
more expensive than the inoculation of a 
hundred. You would think yourself a bar- 
barian if, when you saw a quantity of boil- 
ing water scattered among your helpless 
babes, you let them take their chance with- 
out stirring a step for their rescue — but what 
is a very severe scald to the torturing pain 
and fcver that always attend the most fa- 
vourable natural small-pox! and will you 
load your conscience with the guilt of!? .- 



267 

ing your children a prey to it? I know 
some of you have religious scruples, as if it 
was tempting Providence to take the bene- 
fit of a discovery which has saved thousands 
from blindness, and tens of thousands from 
death; yet do you not tempt Providence 
much more by going to see your neighbours 
in a fever when you can be of no service, 
and only disturb the patient, besides expos - 
ing yourself and all your house to the risk 
of infection. You would indeed act as good 
neighbours, wise friends, and worthy Chris- 
tians, if, as soon as an infectious distemper 
appeared in the next house to you, you 
would without delay receive the children 
into yours and then avoid all communica- 
tion. This would keep the sufferer quiet, 
which is always a mean to promote his re- 
covery, and the disease might be prevented 
from spreading. One or two old persons 
ought to wait upon the sick, as they do not 
receive a contagion so readily as the young. 
Until you take every precaution against fe- 
vers and other infectious disorders, never 
pretend it would be tempting Providence 
to inoculate your children. It is a sad and 
guilty tempting of Providence to omit tak- 
ing advantage of the means which Supreme 
Goodness has afforded to banish a disiem 
per which has been the scourge of the earth. 
If all children were inoculated, the small 
pox would be no more known, and you 



26$ 

who fail to inoculate have 10 answer noc 
only for the lives of your own children, but 
for the lives of all who perish by the contin- 
uance of that cruel infection in the country. 



HINTS ON THE EDUCATION OF THE POOR. 

W E are fully assured that every means 
capable of ameliorating the condition of the 
poor will meet with consideration from ma- 
ny ladies whose beneficent use of their time 
and fortune renders them an honour to hu- 
man nature, and a blessing to the country 
in which they reside. In every walk taken 
for health and amusement thev find an ac- 
cession of the purest pleasures, whilst acting 
as the refuge of the unfortunate, and the re- 
source of the indigent, lat bounty has li- 
mits prescribed by prudence, and though 
the purses of the affluent are opened for the 
relief of their dependants, the effect can be 

partial and temporary: whereas the ben- 
efits ot' instruction will be insinuated through 
all the gradations of society. The lady 
whose advise shall enable a poor mother to 
rear her family in a judicious manner, not 
only promotes their happiness, but has been 

i mental in preparing them for faithful 
limps t«> her own offspring. In 
pation deprives the infc 
- of leisure for 



269 

reflection, and they implicitly adopt the 
practices and prejudices of their parents; but 
the lowest sphere in which a rational agent 
can be placed does not preclude all intellec- 
tual improvement. Unhappily the pamphlets 
to which alone the poor have access, are cal- 
culated to corrupt their morals and dabase 
their understandings. It is therefore the more 
necessary to give them such views of their 
humble duties as may inform their conduct 
with correct and vivifying principles. To 
procure for the sons and daughters of labour 
the cordial of religious and moral sentiments 
and such knowledge as may conduce to the 
right management of their infants, is unspeak- 
ably more benevolent than the most libera! 
donation to purchase the means of mere sen- 
sitive existence. 

Habitual mildness of temper is the con- 
sequence of tender and regular attention 
from the nurse, and lasting impressions may 
be received while yet in her arms. Succes- 
sive feelings and acts constitute habits, and 
a babe of live months old, subjected to ty- 
ranny and neglect, may have its disposition 
materially injured. Thus an improved 
mode of teaching infancy in the cottage 
may promote the dearest interests of those 
who dwell in palaces; nor can the hazard of 
health, morals, and understanding, be escap- 
ed in the most exalted ranks, unless by intro- 
ducing the best methods among thoss t< 
y 2 



270 

whom the first stage of life is in a great mea- 
sure unavoidably entrusted. Though many 
families have suffered severely from the 
ignorance and misbehaviour of nurses, no 
radical remedy has yet been attempted. 
Sensible and tender mothers will endeavour 
by vigilant superintendence to obviate ill 
treatment; but how many hours must a 
babe be daily left at the mercy of his atten- 
dant, and throughout the nig .t does not he 
depend solely on her care and affection? 
It is absurd to hope for the incessant exer- 
tion of self-command and gentleness where 
long confirmed habits have nearly annihila- 
ted native tenderness, and the softer emotions 
are contemned as weaknesses. Compelled 
during infancy and youth to endure harsh 
usage, the finer feelings have become cal- 
lous, and boldness, imperiousness, and ob- 
duracy are regarded as signs of cleverness. 
Candour and justice demand of us to make 
great allowances for faults proceeding from 
erroneous education: but the imploring ac- 
cents of humanity, and the clearest dictates 
of self-interest loudly call on every intelli- 
gent and sympathising mind to co-operate 
in removing the original cause of such 
misconduct. The rigorous measures adop- 
ted by the mother in a low station inflict 
much needless suffering on her child, and 
ire pregnant with miseries to babes yet un- 
born; when the young person is of age to 



271 

be employed as a nurse. We will even ven 
ture to affirm that many of the children at 
poverty have perished, or have contracted 
incurable distempers in consequence of well 
meant but unrelenting severity. To save or 
prolong the lives of a "bold peasantry, their 
country's pride;" to smooth their asperities, 
and improve their virtues is to bestow pri- 
vate happiness in conjunction with national 
prosperity. Population is the tower of 
strength in all countries, whilst it also con- 
stitutes the mighty engine by which alone 
the sources of wealth become efficient; and 
not only the secular, but the moral interests 
of the higher orders of mankind are closely 
interwoven with those of their inferiors. 
The despotism of nurses may impair the 
nascent faculties of a highly gifted intellect, 
and temper and ingenuousness depend al- 
most entirely on their attention^ and pa. 
tience. 

We have been shocked to observe a lisp- 
ing infant inventing excuses, feigning a iond- 
ness it was impossible to feel; "creeping by 
serpentine avenues" into favour after se- 
vere chastisement, and afraid to speak or to 
move lest by some new inadvertency it 
might again incur correction. In such cir- 
cumstances the child's perceptions can never 
be freely exerted, and yet every kind and 
degree of abilUy is included in their exer- 
tion. A fond mother will find sufficient ii*» 



272 

ducement to employ her utmost efforts for 
the instruction of her dependants by consi- 
dering, that torture will never be abolished 
in the nursery so long as the peasantry shall 
govern their children by means that chiefly 
tend to enfeeble to debase, and to endurate 
the whole character. We say enfeeble, as 
imbecility, though the frequent consequence 
of overwhelming terrors, is not always at- 
tended by true good nature; and the suppo- 
sed harmless, though stupid creature, whilst 
a sycophant to her master and mistress may 

be a tyrant to their child. It is by 

gentle and seasonable management, and by 
distinct notions of right and wrong, that 
a girl can be prepared to fulfil the number- 
less, and sometimes irksome, duties of an 
assiduous and faithful nurse; but still greater 
pains shall be bestowed to teach illiterate 
parents, that the "fierce hardihood" produ- 
ced by severe compulsion does not contri- 
bute essentially to make their children ex- 
pert and useful; infants of the most exalted 
descent cannot be deemed in complete safe- 
ty Unless immediately under the eye of their 
natural protectors. The prejudices of ignor- 
* are not to be overcome by abstract 
i but they will gradually yield to 

influence; and the gentle, but persevering 
of a respectable benefactress may 
under her authority that it is 
by a timely introduction of parental awe. lc 



273 

repress and to eradicate bad propensities, 
thcit sincere obedience may be obtained. 
Iii Lead of learning to disguise foibles and 
tu ,ide offences, every species ol evil will be 
. anxiously avoided by a child who has been 
taught that to shun transgression and to do 
good is not only her duty, but her interest 
ana nappiness. When violent penalties are 
necessary, it is a proof that the first stage of 
infancy has been mismanaged. Let a mo- 
ther be persuaded she cruelly injures her 
little one in giving way to the impulses of 
infantine passion, either because she is loo 
busy to take a few minutes to controul it, 
or too fond to bear the thought of imposing 
momentary hardship. Let no indulgences 
be granted that must be interdicted in a few 
months or years, they w ill not be relin- 
quished without a painful struggle, and the 
child will be punished for faults that might 
have been prevented by timely restraint. 

A small gift bestowed with affability will 
awaken gratitude for the interest a lady has 
taken in her children, and dispose the mother 
to attend with submission to advice, but the 
instructress must keep in view that a person 
nearly destitute of education is in many res- 
pects a child in understanding, and liable to 
misconception of the words addressed to her. 

The instruction of the poor ought doubt 
less to become a primary object of solicitude 
with the rich for their own sakes, but the 



274 

most simple language must be employed, 
and it will fc>e necessary to ascertain that the 
terms used shall be understood in the pre- 
cis^ meaning they were intended to convey. 
We knew one friend of the untutored chil- 
dren of nature, who, before she went out, 
carefully wrote down what she wished to 
communicate, that her phraseology might be 
suited to the auditors. 

The rules laid down in our first volume 
for preserving the health, temper, and inte- 
grity of the human race, are adapted to all 
conditions during the first, and part of the 
second year of life: but a material difference 
must take place as soon as the child of a 
cottager can perform the smallest office for 
her parents or herself. Besides learning'the 
alphabet, and attempting to combine the 
sounds of letters, she ought to be initiated 
in active usefulness. Poor people often suf- 
fer their children to run about idle four or 
five years, and then are quite impatient to 
make them work as much, and as diligently 
as if they had been all their days trained 
to industry. A cheerful representation of 
the advantages derived from being good ser- 
vants, and doing every thing well and expe- 
ditiously, will make employment appear 
desirable, especial ly'when it gives scope to 
their natural activity. Books and lessons 
are sedentary and dull; but work, if taught 
with due allowance for inexperience, and 



275 

not pushed so far as to fatigue the little no 
vices, will seldom be unacceptable, and, be- 
sides, it will keep them out of mischief. The 
natural restlessness of children may be con- 
verted to useful exertion, but unless conduc- 
ted into proper channels it will spend itself 
in foolish tricks, and what begins through 
inconsiderateness becomes at length a male- 
volent disregard to the feelings of others. 
The offspring of wealth has an attendant 
who may prevent annoyances to those 
around, but the child of hard working pa- 
rents will be apt to abuse long intervals of 
liberty, and when she must be confined to 
constant occupation, will look back with 
regret on the amusements of her childhood, 
and think a state of inaction or idleness the 
only state of enjoyment. They who must 
earn their own subsistence should have the 
principle deeply impressed by showing them 
they must do as much as they can lor their 
meals. A bunch of feathers to dust the fur- 
niture, or a little broom to sweep the floor, 
or cleaning spoons, wooden platters, stools, 
and such small articles, will lead them with* 
out painful exertion to greater performances. 
The spelling book, plain work, knitting 5 
and mending, by diversifying their occupa- 
tion, will prevent weariness: and elder chil- 
dren should be engaged in teaching the next 
in age what themselves have learnt a few 
months before. 



276 

Order and exactness may be made more 
easy and agreeable than irregularity, oy giv- 
ing each a place for their own little arti- 
cles; and having always heard it was dis- 
graceful to be disorderly and careless, or to 
have goodness imposed on them by force or 
fear, they will imbibe these opinions. 

Exercise is absolutely necessary for chil- 
dren, but in various circumstances it may 
be combined with cheerful industry. The 
prospect of going out at a certain hour to 
collect fuel, or to pick out weeds and stones 
from the cultivated fields, will be anticipa- 
ted within doors by a poor child with as 
much delight as a walk or a ride in a car- 
riage is expected by the youthful inhabitants 
of a lofty edifice; and a boy whilst assisting 
his father at work, if treated w T ith encoura- 
ging kindness, will not soon forget the hints 
he may receive to direct his future dealings 

with society. If the father knows, 

how to temper frankness with authority, 
this intercourse will confirm the child's 
willing obedience, by increasing his venera- 
tion. A daughter treated in the same man- 
ner will seldom be involved in the dangers 
by which girls are encompassed, who think 
nothing so terrible as the scrutinizing eye of 
in imperious mother. Schemes to deceive 
her who gave them birth and to obtain mo- 
mentary liberty will be planned, and cannot 
be carried into execution without intimacie 



and connivances, sometimes of the mo^. 
ruinous tendency. Think of this, ye wtiose 
anxiety, unregulated by prudence, and un- 
softened by gentleness, dtteats its own aim 
in depriving you of the confidence of your 
children, which alone can ensure their safe- 
ty, and you. O! ye young of both sexes, be 
assured, whatever ye attempt against the 
advice of your parents must be wrong, and 
will seldom fail, sooner or later, to plunge 
you into wretchedness. One bad consequence 
is inevitable — your principles of rectitude 
will be unsettled, and one deviation from 
them may conduct you to deep depravity. 

Gloom and terrors obscure and deform 
the religious notions of the ignorant, and 
much of the happiness and energy of their 
minds is sunk in bigotted enthusiasm, which 
makes no valuable reformation in their mo- 
ral conduct. When children are taught to 
believe in the continual inspection of their 
Creator, his goodness and bounty ought to 
be represented in the most animating strain 
of devout thanksgiving. Let the hope of 
being admitted to ceaseless enjoyment be 
the fundamental principle of their piety. 
The assurance of exchanging a life of su- 
bordination and labour for everlasting and 
blessed rest, and the privations of poverty 
for the fullness of joy, ought to be the mo- 
tives of duty held out to the young mind- 



27 S 

The father of a family offers up long prayers 
with his kneeling household, but the chil- 
dren understand veiy little of all that is said. 
Social worship is most laudable, but if half 
the time so occupied were to be set aside 
for hearing each child offer a short petition, 
and afterwards explaining the meaning of 
each sentence much greater benefit would 
result. Poor children, in the country espe- 
cially, behold the splendors of the world 
only at church; and they may be told that 
all the objects they admire are contemptible 
as dust and ashes when compared with the 
glories of those mansions prepared for the 
righteous, and which are the undoubted por- 
tion after death of all who have endeavoured 
to lead blameless, useful, and godly lives. 
Hope is more congenial and operative in the 
youthful season than fear; and it is an error 
fatal to the free spirit of true religion to per- 
form sacred offices, or enjoin them to chil- 
dren, in a manner calculated to till their 
hearts with superstitious terror of avenging 
justice. The adorable attributes of Su- 
preme love and mercy, inspiring a holy zeal 
to please the Eternal Father, who is ever 
present to observe and to reward the mean- 
est of his children, ought to he the object of 
their devotion. Some people make a boast 
of the catechisms, psalms, and chapters their 
little ones can recite The poor infants are 
oppressed by long tasks, and, perhaps, fore 



279 

ever disgusted at piety. It is not what they 
read, but what they comprehend, that will 
influence their behaviour; and it is of the ut- 
most importance to associate no repulsive 
ideas with the service of their blessed Crea- 
tor. 

To establish a deep and habitual regard 
to the principles of honesty, a child must 
not be permitted to pick up a rag, a thread, 
a piece of wood, or the smallest article, with- 
out inquiring to whom it belongs. This 
easy rule, and asking leave before they 
touch any thing, even when but lisping in- 
fants, will keep them out of mean scrapes, 
and give a strong regard to the property of 
others. Covetousness will have no place in 
their hearts if they are prevented from over- 
rating fine and pretty things that are beyond 
their reach, by some such remarks as the 
following: "You see, children, how* many 
things there are in the world that are not ne- 
cessary to happiness. What appears to you 
so attractive could add neither to your health, 
comfort, goodness, nor wisdom, if you pos- 
sessed them, nor are these great mercies di- 
minished by wanting them." Parents have 
the desires and opinions of their offspring at 
their own disposal, but precepts must be en 
forced by suitable practice. For instance, it 
will be to little purpose for the mother to 
recommend sobriety if the father frequently 
returns home intoxicated, and shall talk of 



280 

pleasures he enjoyed at the ale-house. The 
imagination of his sons will be pre-occupied 
by a convivial merriment, and they are train- 
ing as an easy prey to dissolute companions. 
Children should never perceive there is a 
difference of opinion respecting their man- 
agement. When one is supported by the 
father, and another by the mother, the au- 
thority of both is overthrown, and envyings 
and malevolence will divide the family. 
Every means ought to be employed to con- 
vince them their is no partiality; that they 
are never rebuked but for their own good, 
and that pointing out their faults is the high- 
est evidence of affection: they will take ad- 
monition in this light if it is given without 
violence, and they may also be accustomed 
to advise each other, and no offence will be 
given or taken on that account. These atten- 
tions, though apparently immaterial, are of 
great assistance to the mother, and cannot 
fail of success if she keeps her children from 
bad company. Two or three families may 
confer the most valuable reciprocal benefits 
by taking charge of all the children when 
their parents must leave them. Seated in a 
groupe, the eldest boy, according to Mr. 
Lancaster's method, may teach the rest to 
read; and in the same way, whilst the girls 
are a( work, they may be taught a portion 
of Wafts* Divine Songs for children, or 



281 

Bomt other help to religious and moral con- 
victions. 

Though running about without occupa- 
tion and without controul has ruined hun- 
dreds of children, they derive many advan- 
tages from meeting in a day-school, Besides 
learning the necessary branches of reading, 
writing, arithmetic, and needlework, their 
perceptions are exercised, and they gain dis- 
crimination of their own rights and interests 
and the proper means of maintaining them 
without encroaching on others Dull, timid 
natures are often very deficient in this res- 
pect; but experience may teach it, and sound 
principles will confine their worldly wisdom 
within the strict limits of innocence and jus- 
tice. When children are sent to school their 
parents must double their vigilance during 
the hours spent at home, to fix moral truths 
and maxims of circumspection in their hearts, 
enforcing the necessity for these safeguards 
among new associates by every excitement 
that can counteract the heedlessness of youth . 

But fallible creatures of all ages will com- 
mit offences, and poor people are apt to fqr- 
get when inflamed with wrath, that the cor- 
rective to prove effectual must be applied to 
the mind. Severity never yet produced sin- 
cere compunction, nor implanted one virtu- 
ous thought to awaken or to strengthen 
resolutions of amendment. The delinquent 
z 2 



282 

concludes she has been doomed by resent 
ment to a certain measure of suffering, and 
if treated unmercifully will feel more ag- 
grieved than guilty. Where fear predomi- 
nates, the disposition is always artful; and as 
the child outgrows subjection, a crafty tem- 
porising policy succeeds to the dread of pun- 
ishment. Bad propensities are disguised 
wherever their appearance might be hurtful 
to the young stimulator's credit or interest; 
but if no sinister motive forbids it, corrupt in- 
clinations will be indulged without restraint. 
These are the consequences of denoun- 
cing penalties instead of inculcating the love 
of virtue. False appearances will be assum- 
ed, and if transgression can be concealed 
they think all is well. 

Parents in the subordinate ranks some- 
times imagine itis their duty to harden their 
children against the ills of servitude, by in- 
uring them early to the painful exercise of 
resolution; and it is not surprising that ig- 
norant minds should mistake insensibility 
for fortitude: but they who have learnt the 
distinction, ought to inform them, that ere 
ihe mind can airive at sufficient hardiness 
to outbrave degrading and painful infliction, 
the feelings that produce all the charities 
which sweeten life must be nearly extinct. 

It will be objected that Solomon hath 
jaid he thai sparvih the rod hatdh his 50??, 
and we verily believe that parents, teachers. 



283 

and masters, have sacrificed their own in 
stinctive humanity to this figurative precept 
which has caused much of the falsehood, 
servility and inconsistency imputed to those 
who feel themselves dependent on the wii I 
of others. A greater than Soloman hath 
most expressly commanded, give to him 
that asketlt thee and from him that could bar- 
row of thee, turn not thou away; and yet no 
rational being literally obeys these most 
perempt6ry injunctions delivered by him 
whose wisdom, no less than his authority, 
was infinitely superior to all the kings and 
sages of the universe. Let Solomon's max- 
im, therefore, be understood as a strong eas- 
tern figure to enjoin an early and careful 
restraint on every bad propensity. It is in- 
struction, and not arbitrary punishment that 
must qualify children for governing their 
own inclinations and emotions, a restraint 
which can only take place through the volun- 
tary and well directed efforts of the indivi- 
dual. Compulsion and terror produce no 
internal change or improvement; and my- 
riads of children have been driven to deceit 
and all the diverging mischiefs that attend 
the loss of integrity, by want of courage to 
endure the present evil. The dread of cor- 
rection cannot lesson a fault; for the child 
can think but confusedly and feebly of mo- 
ral ties, whilst all his solicitude is engrossed 
by contrivances to hide what he may have 



284 

done amiss. The utmost wish to shun ehs 
obedience cannot preserve a weak erring 
creature from blameable actions; but if rebu- 
ked without violence, false excuses would 
seldom be thought of. Children never vio- 
late truth without secret repugnance and 
self-reproach^ but horror and dread are yet 
more powerful sensations, and if parents 
were fully aware of the dangers attendant 
on extinguishing the glimmering light of rec- 
titude, how conscientiously and firmly 
w r ould they suppress wrath, and govern by 
reason and affection. Terror tempts children 
to deny facts, from thence they proceed to 
a precipice, from whence there is but one 
step to tnieviug and an ignominious death. 
It the lower class of people reflected on these 
facts, they \\ ould see clearly the insanity of 
subjecting their children to present suffering 
which may also draw upon them evil they 
would most anxiously deprecate, and they 
id adi j>t milder measures. Confine- 
ment is a penalty of sufficient efficacy to 
cui b the passions of an infant. She will pro- 
bahlj lien this sentence is put in force, 

but h b <1 lamentations must be dis- 

1 till she becomes submissive, and 
_ '.a always to be detained in sight 
^ arc occasioned by a slight 
, her wailing is to be treated 
with seeming Kfl It she pereeivet 

we are sorry lor lier, she will continue the 



285 

complaint to obtain sympathy, and if irrita- 
ted by reprooi she will go on through a spi- 
rit of contradiction. Children who are thus 
accustomed to sit quietly are less trouble- 
some than others. It is a fault very com- 
mon to infants who are immoderately fond- 
led, to be importunate for a mother's atten- 
tion when civility demands it for her friends, 
and if this weakness is derided by the guest, 
either of the parents will whip the little one 
to prove she has not been spoiled. This un- 
equal treatment ruins the child's temper and 
undermines parental authority. A moderate, 
but invariable awe should be maintained in 
early infancy; but let it always be evident 
that no pleasure is denied, no disappoint- 
ment or punishment awarded, but what is 
necessary to assist in giving her power over 
her own passions. A noisy child is certainly 
very disagreeable, and in a small house, she 
cannot have her choice either to be quiet or 
to go to another apartment; yet it is really 
unjust to punish her for being unruly when 
strangers come in, if she has never learnt at 
other times to refrain, and to attend to the 
feelings of others. Instead of beating her, let 
her be turned out of doors in disgrace, and 
all playthings and amusements withheld 
from her; but if she wishes to return, and to 
make atonement, she ought to have an op- 
portunity of putting her good resolutions in 
practice. 



286 

A mother's trouble will be much lessen- 
ed by assiduously Jorming the eldest child 
to good habits. She will keep her juniors 
from doing wrong, and lead them to act 
aright, both by precept and example; and 
she may be directed to convince them it is 
shameful to disobey their parents, or to be 
troublesome. She will praise them for tell- 
ing truth, and for restoring what they find. 
If she teach them that instruction is the first 
of benefits, they will receive it thankfully; 
whilst seeing all their behaviour in familiar 
intercourse, she can suit her advices to every 
exigency. 

It is almost superfluous to observe that 
the eldest child ought carefully to be taught 
the performance of these duties, and to be 
kind and gentle to the younger children. 
When a child commits a fault, instead of 
giving room to suppose all bad consequen- 
ces may be commuted by immediate bodi- 
ly pain, the parent, should make her com- 
prehend that one single transgression fre- 
quently draws after it a long train of evils, 
and in the course of days or weeks, if any 
inconvenience could be traced back to by- 
gone offences, it would be of much effect in 
Urging the delinquent to circumspection- 
One lesson to induce children to think, and 
to calculate the probable tendency of their 
actions, is of more real value than years of 
imperious restriction, which only const:; 



287 

the outward behaviour, whilst the parents 
are in view; and tempts to endless devices 
for the purpose of obtaining a Ik tie freedom. 
We have known children who were re- 
garded even by their parents and friends as 
confirmed liars, and almost despaired of as 
reprobates, yet by having their own reason 
awakened, and being released from slavish 
fear, the more amiable shades of their dis- 
position appeared, and they were gradually 
restored to truth and rectitude. We are ful- 
ly convinced that all who give these means a 
fair trial will succeed by patient perseverance. 
Show the unhappy child you are deeply 
afflicted, not enraged by his misconduct, 
which is fatal to your peace and his prosperi- 
ty, and that he will hereafter sorrowfully 
wish to retrieve a blasted reputation. Show 
him he has nothing to fear in being at all 
times open and ingenuous, but every thing 
to hope by gaining the love of his relations, 
and by being believed and trusted. That 
a good name can only be secured by truly 
deserving it, for imposing appearances are 
sooner or later detected; ask no question 
that an infant would hesitate to answer with 
the strictest veracity; never seek to extort 
confession, as it risks giving a custom of ly- 
ing, and every transgression makes a child 
more prone to that base fault, by blunting 
the sense of its shameful turpitude. 



288 

Superfluous bustle and voluble exclama- 
tions, where accidents happen, ought to be 
carefully checked. The power of acting 
with calm self-possession in cases of alarm 
or peril, is a qualification highly essential in 
a nurse, and it depends in a great measure 
on early habit. A sense of the Divine Om- 
nipresence, Almighty Goodness, a present 
help in trouble, will impart fortitude and 
serenity to a truly religious mind, if due at- 
tention has been given to guard against sud- 
den or weak emotions. Children should be 
taught that piety, morality, composure, and 
usefulness, are inseparable, or if disjoined, 
cannot be genuine. 

Deviations from truth, plain dealing, or 
honesty, seldom disgrace the maturer years 
of those who have been habituated to reveal 
their sentiments and desires to their parents, 
and to converse with them on easy terms. 
The most impressive lessons children re- 
ceive are conveyed in this inartificial mode 
of instruction. A few seasonable words spo- 
ken while dressing or undressing little ones, 
or giving them food, or whilst seated with 
them at work, might keep them back from 
many transgressions; but the parent must be- 
ware never to contradict her own maxims. 
She must invent no fibs to divert the infant, 
and induce her to obedience. She will soon 
find out and imitate the deceptions, and de- 
vices for working out her purposes by indi- 



289 

rect means will be engrafted on her disposi- 
tion. 

It would be criminal to have omitted to 
enlarge, digest, and elucidate our views by 
exploring the way-marks pointed out by 
our predecessors in teaching the elements of 
education. We have also employed a long 
series' of years in collecting the scatter- 
ed information to be obtained from collo- 
quial intelligence superadded to the many 
valuable remarks derived from books; but 
not one principle has been adopted without 
the test of experience, which invariably has 
strengthened our conviction that youth in 
every sphere and situation ought to be go- 
verned with the least possible abridgment 
of individual comfort or freedom. The fre- 
quent recurrence of compulsion and penal 
irritation sours the temper, exhausts the be- 
nevolent feelings, and destroys the indeperi* 
dent sense of rectitude which most substan- 
tially contributes to real merit, and happi- 
ness. Children may have many perform- 
ances forced upon them mechanically, but 
probity is the result of voluntary preference; 
and it is the wisdom of those who would 
strengthen the tender mind for embracing 
virtue to remove every obstacle or discou- 
ragement. In every circumstance and pe- 
riod of life we are governed in a great mea- 
sure by our sensations; but in youth, animal 
2 A 



290 

propensities and feelings are more than a 
counterpoise for the moral and intellectual; 
and if to these, the child's happiness is oppo- 
sed, she will seldom have fortitude to fore- 
go the present exemption from blame or 
suffering, though it must be purchased by 
falsehood. 

We dare not flatter ourselves that acute 
and sensible readers may not discover many 
deficiencies in this essay, but we hope the 
general tenor will be found consistent with 
the welfare of society. To such as may be 
averse to interference in the education of 
their dependants, we beg leave to submit a 
few considerations, and to ask if it does not 
seem necessary to acquaint their domestics 
more completely with some parts of their 
duty, and to dispose them for discharging it 
with greater fidelity. 

If this be admitted, let us enquire how it 
may be accomplished, and we believe it will 
appear to be attainable only by a more ele- 
vated standard of morality. We all know 
the extreme difficulty in breaking off bad 
habits in mature age, and therefore to deli- 
ver a rising generation from the worst effects 
of ignorance and prejudice is of unspeaka- 
ble importance. Cheap and plain tracts on 
the management of their children should be 
circulated, but oral explanations may fre- 
quently I ry to guard against mir- 
ation; andean there be a chant \ 



291 

sublime, or so easily afforded as assisting to 
enlighten our fellow creatures on a subject 
involving the personal safety and mental en- 
dowments of all conditions. These inesti- 
mable benefits may be bestowed at the ex- 
pense of a little time and conciliation of 
manner, in addressing an honest pair, whose 
unvitiated heart and sound understanding 
will be open to truth and reason, when de- 
lineated by a patroness whose opinions on 
every topic must be received with grateful 
deference Self-evident advantages arise 
from checking the first symptoms of corrupt 
inclination and training infants to revere and 
obey their parents as soon as they are capa- 
ble of comprehending mandates or prohibi- 
tions; and it is equally unquestionable, that 
to be prepared for conducting themselves by 
distinct knowledge and voluntary preference 
of right and avoidance of wrong, can alone 
make them truly worthy when their charac- 
ter is formed. 

When we consider the consequences, im- 
mediate and remote, of ruling by a system 
of terror those who in after life are to have 
absolute power over defenceless beings, to 
whom they are attached by no tie of natu- 
ral affection, and who will frequently exer- 
cise the tenderness and patience of their 
nurses by a thousand nameless infirmities 
and troublesome follies, we must pronounce 
that it would be an employment the most 



192 

congenial to female benevolence and sympa- 
thy, to avail themselves of every advantage 
afforded by local situation, rank, ability, or 
other influence, for diffusing among the hum- 
ble classes the most approved maxims on the 
subject of education. A lady's own discre- 
tion must determine her choice of specific 
arguments to prove that harsh treatment is 
ultimately subversive of rectitude, which in 
itself implies more qualities of value in a do- 
mestic than the most skilful and dexterous 
performance of manual service 

The exalted charity taught and exempli- 
fied by the Divine Saviour of mankind, first 
shed abroad the mild lustre of refinement 
:h has smoothed the gradations to all 
the milder graces that adorn the present age. 
Wherever the beams of pure Christianity 
have penetrated — wisdom and happiness 
have folio wed their course; and the barbarous 
otism which added unprofitable hard- 
ships to the discipline of youth has been su- 
jeded by gentle and salutary restraints. 

But in many instances the trembling babe 
in the nursery sufferings 
whi ldders.